3.D - Agricultural Soils

Short description

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF
3.D Agricultural Soils
consisting of / including source categories
3.D.a.1 Inorganic N-fertilizers (includes also urea application) T2 (NH3), T1 (NOx) NS, RS D (NH3), D (NOx)
3.D.a.2.a Animal manure applied to soils T2, T3 (NH3), T1 (NOx) M CS (NH3), D (NOx)
3.D.a.2.b Sewage sludge applied to soils T1 (NH3, NOx) NS, RS D (NH3), D (NOx)
3.D.a.2.c Other organic fertilisers applied to soils (including compost) T2 (NOx, NH3) M CS
3.D.a.3 Urine and dung deposited by grazing animals T1 (NH3, NOx) NS, RS D
3.D.c Farm-level agricultural operations including storage, handling and transport of agricultural products T2 (TSP, PM10, PM2.5) NS, RS D
3.D.d Off-farm storage, handling and transport of bulk agricultural products NA & NR (Black Carbon only)
3.D.e Cultivated crops T2 (NMVOC) NS, RS D
3.D.f Agriculture: Other (including use of pesticides) T2 (HCB) NS D

NOx NMVOC SO2 NH3 PM2.5 PM10 TSP BC CO Heavy Metals PAHs HCB PCBs
3.D.a.1 L/T NA NA L/T NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
3.D.a.2.a L/- IE NA L/T NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
3.D.a.2.b -/- NA NA -/- NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
3.D.a.2.c -/- NA NA L/T NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
3.D.a.3 -/- IE NA -/- NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
3.D.c NA NA NA NA -/- L/- L/- NA NA NA NA NA NA
3.D.e NA -/- NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
3.D.f NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA L/- NA

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Method(s) applied
D Default
T1 Tier 1 / Simple Methodology *
T2 Tier 2*
T3 Tier 3 / Detailed Methodology *
C CORINAIR
CS Country Specific
M Model
* as described in the EMEP/EEA Emission Inventory Guidebook - 2019, in category chapters.
(source for) Activity Data
NS National Statistics
RS Regional Statistics
IS International Statistics
PS Plant Specific
As Associations, business organisations
Q specific Questionnaires (or surveys)
M Model / Modelled
C Confidential
(source for) Emission Factors
D Default (EMEP Guidebook)
CS Country Specific
PS Plant Specific
M Model / Modelled
C Confidential


Country specifics

NH₃ and NOₓ

In 2022, agricultural soils emitted 267.8 kt NH3 or 57.1 % of the total agricultural NH3 emissions in Germany (469.3 kt NH3). The main contributions to the total NH3 emissions from agricultural soils are the application of manure (3.D.a.2.a), with 165.8 kt (61.9 %) and the application of other organic N-fertilizers (3.D.a.2.c) with 54.2 kt (20.2 %).

Application of synthetic N-fertilizers (3.D.a.1) contributes 33.4 kt NH3 (12.5 %). N excretions on pastures (3.D.a.3) have a share of 12.8 kt NH3 (4.8 %) and the application of sewage sludge (3.D.a.2.b) leads to 1.6 kt NH3 (0.6 %).

In 2022, agricultural soils were the source of 98.6 % (99.9 kt) of the total of NOx emissions in the agricultural category (101.3 kt). The NOx emissions from agricultural soils are primarily due to application of inorganic fertilizer (3.D.a.1) (45.5 kt) and manure (3.D.a.2.a) (35.2 kt) Application of other organic N-fertilizers (3.D.a.2.c) contributes 13.9 kt to agricultural soil emissions, 4.8 kt are due to excretions on pastures (3.D.a.3). Emissions from application of sewage sludge (3.D.a.2.b) contribute 0.5 kt.

NMVOC

In 2022, the category of agricultural soils contributed 8.9 kt NMVOC or 3.1 % to the total agricultural NMVOC emissions in Germany. The only emission source was cultivated crops (3.D.e).

TSP, PM₁₀ & PM₂.₅

In 2022, agricultural soils contributed, respectively, 35.6 % (21.0 kt), 63.4 % (21.0 kt) and 31.4 % (1.7 kt) to the total agricultural TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 emissions (59.1 kt, 33.1 kt, 5.3 kt, respectively). The emissions are reported in category 3.D.c (Farm-level agricultural operations including storage, handling and transport of agricultural products).

3.D.a.1 - Inorganic N-fertilizers

The calculation of NH3 and NOx (NO) emissions from the application of synthetic fertilizers is described in Vos et al. (2024), Chapters 5.2.1.2 and 5.2.2.2 1)1).

Activity Data

German statistics report the amounts of fertilizers sold which are assumed to equal the amounts that are applied. Since the 2021 submission, storage effects are approximated by applying a moving average to the sales data (moving centered three-year average, for the last year a weighted two-year average, which assigns 2/3 of the weight to the last year). Since the year 2022, data for the sales of urea that is stabilized with urease inhibitor is available. It cannot be published because of data-privacy issues. Therefore, the emissions are calculated and provided by the federal statistical office using the emission factors as described below. The activity data are published in aggregate for urea, urea+inhibitor and nitrogen solutions to maintain confidentiality. For details see Vos et al. (2024), Chapter 2.8.

Table 1: AD for the estimation of NH3 and NOx emissions from application of synthetic fertilizers

Application of manure in [kt N]
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
1,131 987 970 940 945 984 978 974 959 952 943 919 893

Methodology

NH3 emissions from the application of synthetic fertilizers are calculated using the Tier 2 approach according to EMEP (2019)-3D-14ff 1), distinguishing between various fertilizer types, see Table 2. For NOx, the Tier 1 approach described in EMEP (2019) [10]-3D-11 is applied.

Emission factors

The emission factors for NH3 depend on fertilizer type, see EMEP (2019)-3D-15. Table 2 lists the EMEP emission factors for the fertilizers used in the inventory. In order to reflect average German conditions, the emission factors for cool climate and a pH value lower than 7 was chosen. For urea fertilizer the German fertilizer ordinance prescribes the use of urease inhibitors or the immediate incorporation into the soil from 2020 onwards. The NH3 emission factor for urea fertilizers is therefore reduced by 70% from 2020 onwards for the immediate incorporation of urea, according to Bittman et al. (2014, Table 15)2). For the use of urease inhibitors the emission factor for urea fertilizer is reduced by 60%. For details see Vos et al. (2024), Chapter 5.2.1.2.

Table 2: Synthetic fertilizers, emission factors in kg NH3 per kg fertilizer N

Fertilizer type EF
calcium ammonium nitrate 0.008
ammonia nitrate urea solutions (AHL) 0.098
urea (up to 2019) 0.155
urea (from 2020 with urease inhibitor) 0.062
urea (from 2020 if incorporated) 0.0465
ammonium phosphates 0.050
other NK and NPK 0.050
other straight fertilizers 0.010

For NOx, the simpler methodology by EMEP (2019)-3D-11 was used. The emission factor 0.040 from EMEP, 2019-3D, Table 3.1 has the unit of [kg N2O per kg fertilizer N] and was derived from 3).

The German inventory uses the emission factor 0.012 kg NO-N per kg N derived from Stehfest and Bouwman (2006). This is equivalent to an emission factor of 0.03943 kg NOx per kg fertilizer N (obtained by multiplying 0.012 kg NO-N per kg N with the molar weight ratio 46/14 for NO2: NO). The inventory uses the unrounded emission factor.

Table 3: Emission factor for NOx emissions from fertilizer application

Emission factor kg NO-N  per kg fertilizer N kg NOx per kg fertilizer N
EFfert 0.012 0.039

Trend discussion for Key Sources

Since 2016, fertilizer sales have fallen dramatically (by around a third). Emissions have fallen accordingly. This is even more pronounced for NH3 than for NOx, as total NH3 from the application of mineral fertilizers is, until the year 2019, very strongly correlated with the amount of urea applied (R<SUP>2</SUP> = 0.89), the sales of which have decreased more than for all other mineral fertilizers. Since 2020 the negative trend is reinforced as urea fertilizer have to be either used with urease inhibitors or have to be incorporated into the soil directly, which reduces emissions.

Recalculations

Table REC-1 shows the effects of recalculations on NH3 and NOx emissions. Major differences for NH3 emissions occur in 2020 and 2021 because of the new reduction factor for the use of urease inhibitors and to a much lesser extent resulting from the moving average. The latter is the only reason for the differences of NOx emissions in 2021. Minor differences occur in some years before 2008. They result from the correction of the applied amounts (recalculation No. 12).

Table 4: REC-1: Revised NH3 and NOx emissions, in kilotonnes

1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
Ammonia
current submission 78.71 69.55 85.64 86.36 88.43 97.89 99.73 89.25 76.79 65.63 36.64 35.02 33.44
previous submission 78.82 69.56 85.64 86.36 88.43 97.89 99.73 89.25 76.79 65.63 35.94 34.87
absolute change -0.11 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.70 0.15
relative change [%] -0.14 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.94 0.44 -0.14
Nitrogen oxides
current submission 86.53 67.93 75.77 70.84 64.48 68.46 68.24 63.95 59.11 55.34 52.31 49.08 45.46
previous submission 86.57 67.94 75.77 70.84 64.48 68.46 68.24 63.95 59.11 55.34 52.31 51.30
absolute change -0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 -2.22
relative change [%] -0.04 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 -4.32

Planned improvements

No improvements are planned at present.

3.D.a.2.a - Animal manure applied to soils

In this sub-category Germany reports the NH3 and NOx (NO) emissions from application of manure (including application of anaerobically digested manure). An overview is given in Vos et al. (2024), Chapters 5.2.1.2 and 5.2.2.2. Germany uses the Tier 2 methodology for estimating NMVOC emissions for cattle in sector 3.B (manure management). The use of this methodology yields NMVOC emissions which formally could be reported in the sectors 3.D.a.2.a and 3.D.a.3 (grazing emissions). However, to be congruent with the NMVOC emissions for other animal categories, Germany reports these emissions in the NMVOC emissions reported from manure management (3.B). For the NFR codes 3.D.a.2.a and 3.D.a.3 the notation key IE is used for NMVOC emissions.

Activity data

The calculation of the amount of N in manure applied is based on the N mass flow approach (see 3.B). It is the total of N excreted by animals in the housing and the N imported with bedding material minus N losses by emissions of N species from housing and storage. Hence, the amount of total N includes the N contained in anaerobically digested manures to be applied to the field.

The frequencies of application techniques and incorporation times as well as the underlying data sources are described in Vos et al. (2024), Chapter 2.5. The frequencies are provided. in the NID 20244), Chapter 17.3.1.

Table 5: AD for the estimation of NH3 and NOx emissions from application of manure

Application of manure in [kt N]
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
1,131 987 970 940 945 984 978 974 959 952 943 919 893

Methodology

NH3 emissions from manure application are calculated separately for each animal species in the mass flow approach by multiplying the respective TAN amount with NH3 emission factors for the various manure application techniques. For details see [3-b-manure-management 3.B] and Vos et al. (2024), Chapter 5.2.1.2. For NOx emissions from manure application the inventory calculates NO-N emissions (see Vos et al. (2024), Chapter 5.2.2.2, that are subsequently converted into NOx emissions by multiplying with the molar weight ratio 46/14. The Tier 1 approach for the application of synthetic fertilizer as described in EMEP (2019)-3D-11 is used, as no specific methodology is available for manure application.

Emission factors

The following table shows the time series of the overall German NH3 IEF defined as the ratio of total NH3-N emission from manure application to the total amount of N spread with manure.

Table 6: IEF for NH3–N from application of manure

IEF in [kg NH3-N per kg N in applied manure]
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
0.208 0.194 0.187 0.175 0.169 0.161 0.159 0.157 0.155 0.153 0.150 0.151 0.153

Trend discussion for Key Sources

Both NH3 and NOx emissions from the application of animal manures are key sources. Total NOx is calculated proportionally to the total N in the manures applied which decreased remarkably from 1990 to 1991 due to the decline in animal numbers following the German reunification (reduction of livestock numbers in Eastern Germany). In the 1990s and 2000s this was followed by a weakened decline in animal manure amounts. From 2010 to 2014 there was a slight increase and since then the amount of N in manure applied has been declining again, see Table 5. The NOx emissions follow these trends. For total NH3 emissions there is a negative trend. This is due to the decreasing amounts of animal manures and the increasing use of application practices with lower NH3 emission factors.

Recalculations

For all years, the total emissions of NH3 and NOx from application of manure are slightly higher than those of last year’s submission.

These differences are predominantly caused by a higher estimate of manure N, which is applied, compared to the last submission. Most of the recalculations (except No. 2, 11, 12) have an effect on this, some are increasing the emissions (esp. No. 1 (new animal categories) and No. 6 (correction of poultry numbers before 2013). Recalculation No. 13 (update of anaerobic digestion data) results to changes in both directions for different animal categories, see main page of the agricultural sector, list of recalculation reasons. Further details on recalculations are described in Vos et al. (2024), Chapter 1.3.

Table 7: REC-2: Revised NH3 and NOx emissions, in kilotonnes

1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
Ammonia
current submission 286.21 232.97 220.16 199.38 193.95 191.94 188.84 185.61 180.61 176.70 171.37 168.12 165.79
previous submission 285.58 231.79 218.55 197.69 191.85 191.19 188.04 184.84 179.85 176.00 170.65 167.43
absolute change 0.63 1.18 1.60 1.69 2.09 0.75 0.80 0.76 0.76 0.70 0.72 0.69
relative change [%] 0.22 0.51 0.73 0.86 1.09 0.39 0.43 0.41 0.42 0.40 0.42 0.41
Nitrogen oxides
current submission 44.59 38.90 38.23 37.05 37.25 38.81 38.57 38.39 37.83 37.52 37.19 36.22 35.22
previous submission 44.52 38.77 38.04 36.84 37.00 38.80 38.56 38.39 37.82 37.51 37.16 36.15
absolute change 0.07 0.13 0.19 0.21 0.25 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.07
relative change [%] 0.15 0.34 0.49 0.57 0.69 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.03 0.03 0.06 0.20

Planned improvements

No improvements are planned at present.

3.D.a.2.b – Sewage sludge applied to soils

The calculation of NH3 and NOx (NO) emissions from application of sewage sludge is described in Vos et al. (2024), Chapters 5.2.1.2 and 5.2.2.2.

Activity data

N quantities from application of sewage sludge were calculated from data of the German Environment Agency and (since 2009) from data of the Federal Statistical Office.

Table 8: AD for the estimation of NH3 and NOx emissions from application of sewage sludge

Application of sewage sludge in [kt N]
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
27 35 33 27 26 19 19 14 13 16 14 12 12

Methodology

A Tier 1 methodology is used (EMEP, 2019, 3D, Chapter 3.3.1). NH3 and NOx emissions are calculated by multiplying the amounts of N in sewage sludge applied with the respective emission factors.

Emission factors

EMEP (2019)-3.D, Table 3-1 provides a Tier 1 emission factor for NH3 (0.13 kg NH3 per kg N applied) emissions from application of sewage sludge. The German inventory uses the equivalent emission factor in NH3-N units which is 0.11 kg NH3-N per kg N applied (cf. the derivation of the emission factor described in the appendix of EMEP (2019)-3D, page 26-27). For NOx the same emission factor like for the application of synthetic fertilizer was used (see Table 3).

Trend discussion for Key Sources

NH3 and NOx emissions from the application of sewage sludge are no key sources.

Recalculations

Due to an update of the activity data, the emission estimates are different compared to the last submission in most years, sometimes higher and sometimes lower (see main page of the agricultural sector, recalculation No. 12). Further details on recalculations are described in Vos et al. (2024), Chapter 1.3.

Table 9: Revised NH3 and NOx emissions, in kilotonnes

1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
Ammonia
current submission 3.66 4.71 4.40 3.66 3.51 2.52 2.51 1.87 1.78 2.14 1.85 1.61 1.61
previous submission 3.66 4.71 4.40 3.66 3.48 2.50 2.50 1.89 1.67 1.90 1.67 1.67
absolute change 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.02 0.02 -0.02 0.11 0.24 0.18 -0.06
relative change [%] 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.93 0.64 0.66 -1.22 6.51 12.61 10.90 -3.85
Nitrogen oxides
current submission 1.08 1.39 1.30 1.08 1.04 0.74 0.74 0.55 0.52 0.63 0.55 0.47 0.47
previous submission 1.08 1.39 1.30 1.08 1.03 0.74 0.74 0.56 0.49 0.56 0.49 0.49
absolute change 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 -0.01 0.03 0.07 0.05 -0.02
relative change [%] 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.93 0.64 0.66 -1.22 6.51 12.61 10.90 -3.85

Planned improvements

No improvements are planned at present.

3.D.a.2.c - Other organic fertilizers applied to soils

This sub category contains the total of Germany’s NH3 and NOx (NO) emissions from application of - residues from digested energy crops, - residues from digested waste, - compost from biowaste, - compost from green waste, and - imported animal manures. For details see Vos et al. (2024), Chapters 5.2.1.2 and 5.2.2.2.

Activity data

Activity data is the amount of N in residues from anaerobic digestion of energy crops and waste and of compost from biowaste and green waste when leaving storage, as well as the amount of N in imported animal manures. For energy crops this is the N contained in the energy crops when being fed into the digestion process minus the N losses by emissions of N species from the storage of the residues (see 3.I). N losses from pre-storage are negligible and there are no N losses from fermenter (see Vos et al. (2024), Chapter 5.1). For residues from digested waste, compost from biowaste and compost from green waste the amount of N was derived from the waste statistics of the Federal Statistical Office (see Vos et al. (2024), Chapter 2.8). For imported manure the amounts of N were derived from statistics published by CBS (Statistics Netherlands) and RVO (Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland) The imported manure is categorized into cattle slurry, pig slurry, poultry manure, horse manure and mixed solid manure. Only imported manures from The Netherlands are taken into account, as for other countries the amounts of imported manures are unknown as are the amounts of exported manure. For details see Vos et al. (2024), Chapter 2.8.

Table 10: AD for the estimation of NH3 and NOx emissions emissions from application of other organic fertilizers

Application of other organic fertilizers in kt N
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
Residues, digested energy crops 0.05 0.59 5.12 43.36 158.69 288.92 287.59 283.07 279.15 279.38 285.56 280.37 280.37
Residues, digested waste 0.00 0.00 1.55 4.97 10.46 15.05 13.97 13.79 14.00 13.75 13.40 15.13 15.98
Compost, biowaste 4.51 19.54 31.87 28.82 22.64 22.59 23.34 21.90 25.14 24.31 25.42 22.98 24.57
Compost, greenwaste 1.13 4.90 7.67 9.46 11.27 13.67 14.29 14.87 14.92 15.89 16.74 15.95 17.58
Imported manure 5.19 19.26 15.56 21.48 27.41 27.53 30.26 26.95 21.22 19.91 16.96 14.22 14.61
TOTAL 10.87 44.30 61.77 108.09 230.47 367.77 369.45 360.58 354.42 353.25 358.09 348.65 353.12

Methodology

The NH3 emissions are calculated the same way as the NH3 emissions from application of animal manure (3.D.a.2.a). The frequencies of application techniques and incorporation times as well as the underlying data sources are provided e. g. in the NID 2024, Chapter 17.3.1. It is assumed that residues of digested waste are applied in the same way and have the same emission factors as residues from digested energy crops. For compost from biowaste and green waste it is assumed that they are applied in the same way and have the same emission factors as cattle solid manure. The amounts of TAN in the residues from digested energy crops applied are obtained from the calculations of emissions from the storage of the digested energy crops (3.I). The amounts of TAN in the residues from digested waste, compost from biowaste and compost from green waste are derived from industry data (provided by Bundesgütegemeinschaft Kompost, BGK). For the imported manures it is assumed that the different imported manure types (see above) were applied in the same way as the corresponding domestic animal manure types. Mixed manure was treated like solid manure from goats, sheep and horses. Corresponding TAN contents were derived from publications of the German federal states. As published TAN contents vary strongly, for each imported manure type the maximum of published TAN contents was assumed to prevent an underestimation of the NH3 emissions. For details see Vos et al. 2024, Chapter 2.8.

For NOx emissions the Tier 1 approach for the application of synthetic fertilizer as described in EMEP (2019)-3D-11 is used. The inventory calculates NO emissions that are subsequently converted into NOx emissions by multiplying with the molar weight ratio 46/30.

Emission factors

For NH3 the emission factors for untreated cattle slurry were adopted for residues from digested energy crops and residues from waste. The emission factors for cattle solid manure were adopted for compost from biowaste and compost from green waste, see Vos et al. (2024), Chapters 5.2.1.2 and 5.2.2.2. For imported manures the corresponding emission factors of the same type of domestic manure were used.

As the NOx method for fertilizer application is used for the calculation of NOx emissions from the application of residues, the emission factor for fertilizer application was used (see Table 3).

Table 11: IEF for NH3-N emissions from application of other organic fertilizers

IEF in kg NH3-N per kg N of other organic fertilizers
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
Residues, digested energy crops 0.182 0.182 0.183 0.183 0.183 0.153 0.150 0.147 0.144 0.141 0.139 0.138 0.138
Residues, digested waste 0.000 0.000 0.192 0.193 0.193 0.171 0.164 0.156 0.163 0.162 0.163 0.162 0.160
Compost, biowaste 0.038 0.038 0.038 0.036 0.034 0.032 0.032 0.032 0.029 0.033 0.034 0.036 0.037
Compost, greenwaste 0.014 0.014 0.014 0.014 0.013 0.015 0.015 0.020 0.013 0.012 0.012 0.012 0.013
Imported manure 0.209 0.204 0.202 0.185 0.174 0.153 0.148 0.147 0.148 0.148 0.144 0.145 0.146
TOTAL 0.118 0.110 0.092 0.130 0.160 0.141 0.138 0.135 0.131 0.129 0.127 0.127 0.126

Trend discussion for Key Sources

The application of other organic fertilizers is a key source for NH3. Emissions are dominated by the emissions from digested energy crops. They have become important since about 2005 and have risen sharply until 2013. Since then, they have changed little each year and tend to decrease slightly in the last few years. The latter is mostly due to the increasing use of application practices with lower NH3 emission factors.

Recalculations

For all years, total NH3 and NOx emissions from application of other organic fertilizers are higher than those of last year’s submission as the emissions from application of residues from digested waste, compost of biowaste and compost of green waste are reported for the first time in the agriculture sector (see main page of the agricultural sector, list of recalculation reasons, No 2, and Vos et al. (2024), Chapter 1.3)

Table 12:REC-4: Revised NH3 and NOx from application of other organic fertilizers, in kilotonnes

1990 1995 2000 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
Ammonia
current submission 1.55 5.89 6.90 62.15 63.06 63.03 61.69 59.17 56.51 55.28 55.04 53.83 54.21
previous submission 0.24 1.12 3.15 60.14 60.84 60.66 58.87 56.82 55.02 53.96 54.33 54.31
absolute change 1.32 4.78 3.75 2.01 2.22 2.37 2.82 2.35 1.49 1.31 0.71 -0.48
relative change [%] 558.94 427.65 118.87 3.34 3.65 3.91 4.80 4.13 2.71 2.43 1.31 -0.89
Nitrogen oxides
current submission 0.43 1.75 2.44 13.15 13.99 14.50 14.57 14.22 13.97 13.93 14.12 13.75 13.92
previous submission 0.22 0.99 1.83 12.76 13.53 14.00 13.95 13.71 13.68 13.68 14.00 13.99
absolute change 0.20 0.76 0.60 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.62 0.51 0.30 0.24 0.12 -0.24
relative change [%] 91.19 76.71 32.86 3.12 3.35 3.56 4.43 3.69 2.17 1.79 0.88 -1.72

Planned improvements

No improvements are planned at present.

3.D.a.3 - Urine and dung deposited by grazing animals

The calculation of NH3 and NOx (NO) emissions from N excretions on pasture is described in Vos et al. (2024), Chapters 5.2.1.1 and 5.2.2.1.

Activity data

Activity data for NH3 emissions during grazing is the amount of TAN excreted on pasture, while for NOx emissions it is the amount of N excreted.

The TAN excretions are derived by multiplying the share of N excretion on pastures with the N excretions and TAN contents provided in 3.B, Table 2.

Table 13: Shares of N excretions on pasture, in [%]

1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
Dairy cows 20.3 15.6 12.7 11.4 10.0 8.6 8.3 8.0 7.6 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.4
Other cattle 15.1 17.3 18.9 19.0 19.6 20.5 20.7 20.9 21.2 21.4 21.5 21.4 21.4
Sheep 55.1 55.5 55.1 55.4 54.8 55.4 55.4 55.4 55.6 55.5 55.4 55.5 55.8
Goats 34.2 34.2 34.2 34.2 34.2 34.2 34.2 34.2 34.2 34.2 34.2 34.2 34.2
Horses 20.5 20.5 20.5 20.5 20.5 20.5 20.5 20.5 20.5 20.5 20.5 20.5 20.5
Laying hens 0.1 0.1 0.5 1.0 1.7 2.3 2.4 2.3 2.5 2.6 2.8 2.8 3.0
Deer 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Ostrich 80.0 80.0 80.0 80.0 80.0 80.0 80.0 80.0 80.0 80.0 80.0 80.0 80.0

Methodology

NH3 emissions from grazing are calculated by multiplying the respective animal population (3.B, Table 1) with corresponding N excretions and relative TAN contents (3.B, Table 2) and the fraction of N excreted on pasture (Table 9). The result is multiplied with the animal specific emission factor (Table 10). NO emissions are calculated the same way with the exception that the emission factor is related to N excreted instead of TAN.

Emission Factors

The emission factors for NH3 are taken from EMEP (2019)-3B-31, Table 3.9. They relate to the amount of TAN excreted on pasture. For laying hens, deer and ostriches there are no emission factors given in this table. Germany uses for laying hens an emission factor of 0.35 kg NH3-N per kg TAN excreted, based on an expert judgement from KTBL (see Vos et al. 2024, Chapter 5.2.1.1). The same EF is used by UK. It was also used for ostriches. For deer the emission factor of sheep was adopted.

Following the intention of EMEP, 2019-3D, Table 3.1, the inventory uses for NOx the same emission factor as for the application of synthetic fertilizer (see Table 3). In order to obtain NOx emissions (as NO2) the NO-N emission factor of 0.12 kg NO-N per kg N excreted is multiplied by 46/14.

Table 14: Emission factors for emissions of NH3 and NO from grazing

Dairy cows 0.14 kg NH3-N per kg TAN excreted
Other cattle 0.14 kg NH3-N per kg TAN excreted
Horses 0.35 kg NH3-N per kg TAN excreted
Sheep, goats 0.09 kg NH3-N per kg TAN excreted
Laying hens 0.35 kg NH3-N per kg TAN excreted
Deer 0.09 kg NH3-N per kg TAN excreted
Ostriches 0.35 kg NH3-N per kg TAN excreted
All animals 0.012 kg NO-N per kg N excreted

Trend discussion for Key Sources

Emissions from urine and dung deposited by grazing animals are no key sources.

Recalculations

For all years, totals of NH3 and NOx emissions from grazing are slightly higher than those of last year’s submission.

The main reason for that is the introduction of the new animal categories “ostriches” and “deer”. It is assumed that rabbits and fur bearing animals do not have access to pasture (see main page of the agricultural sector, list of recalculations, No. 1). Further details on recalculations are described in Vos et al. (2024), Chapter 1.3.

Table 15: REC-5: Revised NH3 and NOx emissions, in kilotonnes

1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
Ammonia
current submission 22.37 18.35 16.55 14.73 14.19 13.94 13.76 13.57 13.33 13.17 12.96 12.75 12.78
previous submission 22.24 18.17 16.32 14.48 13.91 13.67 13.48 13.29 13.05 12.89 12.68 12.47
absolute change 0.14 0.18 0.23 0.25 0.28 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.29
relative change [%] 0.61 1.01 1.43 1.73 2.02 1.99 2.01 2.05 2.11 2.14 2.21 2.30
Nitrogen oxides
current submission 8.50 6.95 6.31 5.64 5.40 5.24 5.17 5.09 4.99 4.93 4.86 4.78 4.78
previous submission 8.40 6.82 6.15 5.48 5.22 5.06 4.98 4.91 4.81 4.74 4.67 4.59
absolute change 0.10 0.13 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.19 0.19
relative change [%] 1.17 1.90 2.62 3.06 3.38 3.56 3.63 3.71 3.82 3.89 3.98 4.15

Planned improvements

No improvements are planned at present.

3.D.c - Farm-level agricultural operations including storage, handling and transport of agricultural products

In this category Germany reports TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 emissions from crop production according to EMEP (2019)-3D-17. For details see Vos et al. (2024), Chapter 5.2.4.

Activity data

The activity data is the total area of agricultural land (arable land, grassland and horticultural land). This data is provided by official statistics.

Table 16: Arable land and grassland, in [1000*ha]

Arable land and grassland in 1000*ha
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
16.597 15.395 15.595 15.674 15.855 15.841 15.789 15.781 15.701 15.694 15.577 15.510 15.465

Methodology

The Tier 2 methodology used is described in EMEP (2019)-3D-17.

Emission factors

Emission factors given in EMEP (2019)-3D-18, Tables 3.5 and 3.7 are used with the exception of „Harvesting“ PM10-factors for Wheat, Rye, Barley and Oat which were taken from the Danish IIR. These Guidebook-EFs are obviously too high by a factor of 10 and were corrected in the Danish IIR.

The missing default-EFs for „other arable“ in the 2019 EMEP/EEA Guidebook were replaced with the average of the EFs of wheat, rye, barley and oat, as it was done in the Danish IIR. The PM10 EFs were also used as TSP EFs. The Guidebook does not indicate whether EFs have considered the condensable component (with or without). For details on country specific numbers of agricultural crop operations see Vos et al. (2024), Chapter 5.2.4.

Table 17: Implied emission factors for PM emissions from agricultural soils, in kg ha-1

1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
TSP 1.41 1.41 1.42 1.40 1.39 1.38 1.37 1.37 1.36 1.36 1.35 1.35 1.36
PM10 1.41 1.41 1.42 1.40 1.39 1.38 1.37 1.37 1.36 1.36 1.35 1.35 1.36
PM2.5 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.11

Trend discussion for Key Sources

TSP and PM10 are key sources. Emissions depend on the areas covered, crop types and number of crop operations. With the exception of the numbers of soil cultivations, which is slightly decreasing, these data are relatively constant. Overall this is reflected in a slight decline of emissions in the last 12 years.

Recalculations

The only difference occurs for 2021, where the emissions are slightly higher than in the previous submission due to the correction of area data in one federal state. Further details on recalculations are described in Vos et al. (2024), Chapter 1.3.

Table 18: REC-6: Revised particle emissions (TSP, PM10 & PM2.5), in kilotonnes

1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
TOTAL SUSPENDED PARTICLES (TSP)
current submission 23.45 21.67 22.13 22.01 22.02 21.81 21.65 21.61 21.38 21.32 21.04 21.00 21.02
previous submission 23.45 21.67 22.13 22.01 22.02 21.81 21.65 21.61 21.38 21.32 21.04 20.97
absolute change 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.03
relative change [%] 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.13
PM10
current submission 23.45 21.67 22.13 22.01 22.02 21.81 21.65 21.61 21.38 21.32 21.04 21.00 21.02
previous submission 23.45 21.67 22.13 22.01 22.02 21.81 21.65 21.61 21.38 21.32 21.04 20.97
absolute change 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.03
relative change [%] 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.13
PM2.5
current submission 1.81 1.70 1.77 1.77 1.77 1.74 1.72 1.72 1.69 1.68 1.65 1.65 1.66
previous submission 1.81 1.70 1.77 1.77 1.77 1.74 1.72 1.72 1.69 1.68 1.65 1.64
absolute change 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
relative change [%] 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.16

Planned improvements

No improvements are planned at present.

3.D.e - Cultivated crops

In this category Germany reports NMVOC emissions from crop production according to EMEP (2019)-3D-16. For details see Vos et al. (2024), Chapter 5.2.3.

Activity data

The total area of arable land and grassland applied as activity data is provided by official statistics.

Table 19: Arable land and grassland, in [1000 ha]

1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
16.506 15.312 15.498 15.561 15.734 15.719 15.662 15.647 15.570 15.563 15.447 15.376 15.336

Methodology

The Tier 2 methodology described in EMEP (2019)-3D-16ff is used.

Emission Factors

The emission factors for wheat, rye, rape and grass (15°C) given in EMEP (2019)-3D-16, Table 3.3 were used. For all grassland areas the grass (15°C) EF is used, for all other crops except rye and rape the EF of wheat is used.

The implied emission factors provided in thr following table are defined as ratio of the total NMVOC emissions from cultivated crops to the total area given by activity data.

Table 20: IEF for NMVOC emissions from crop production, in [kg ha-1]

1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
0.47 0.53 0.57 0.59 0.61 0.63 0.62 0.62 0.50 0.55 0.59 0.61 0.58

Trend discussion for Key Sources

NMVOC emissions from crop production are no key sources.

Recalculations

The only change with respect to last year’s submission occurs for 2021, where emissions are slightly higher in the present submission due to the correction of area data in one federal state. Further details on recalculations are described in Vos et al. (2024), Chapter 1.3.

Table 21: REC-7: Revised NMVOC emissions, in kilotonnes

1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
current submission 7.69 8.19 8.79 9.17 9.53 9.91 9.69 9.74 7.82 8.56 9.16 9.44 8.91
previous submission 7.69 8.19 8.79 9.17 9.53 9.91 9.69 9.74 7.82 8.56 9.16 9.43
absolute change 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
relative change [%] 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.05

For pollutant-specific information on recalculated emission estimates for Base Year and 2021, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.

Planned improvements

No improvements are planned at present.

Uncertainty

Details are described in chapter 1.7.

1)
EMEP (2019): EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook – 2019, EEA Report No 13/2019, https://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-guidebook-2019.
2)
Bittman, S., Dedina, M., Howard C.M., Oenema, O., Sutton, M.A., (eds) (2014): Options for Ammonia Mitigation. Guidance from the UNECE task Force on Reactive Nitrogen. Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh, UK.
3)
Stehfest E., Bouwman L. (2006): N2O and NO emission from agricultural fields and soils under natural vegetation: summarizing available measurement data and modelling of global emissions. Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosyst. 74, 207 – 228.
4)
NIR (2024): National Inventory Report 2024 for the German Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1990-2022. Available in April 2024.