2.D.3.b - Road Paving

Short description

Category Code Method AD EF
2.D.3.b T1 AS CS

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Method(s) applied
D Default
T1 Tier 1 / Simple Methodology *
T2 Tier 2*
T3 Tier 3 / Detailed Methodology *
CS Country Specific
M Model
* as described in the EMEP/EEA Emission Inventory Guidebook - 2019, in category chapters.
(source for) Activity Data
NS National Statistics
RS Regional Statistics
IS International Statistics
PS Plant Specific
As Associations, business organisations
Q specific Questionnaires (or surveys)
M Model / Modelled
C Confidential
(source for) Emission Factors
D Default (EMEP Guidebook)
CS Country Specific
PS Plant Specific
M Model / Modelled
C Confidential

NOx NMVOC SO2 NH3 PM2.5 PM10 TSP BC CO Heavy Metals POPs
-/- -/- -/- NA -/- -/- -/- NE IE NA NA, NE

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L/- key source by Level only
-/T key source by Trend only
L/T key source by both Level and Trend
-/- no key source for this pollutant
IE emission of specific pollutant Included Elsewhere (i.e. in another category)
NE emission of specific pollutant Not Estimated (yet)
NA specific pollutant not emitted from this source or activity = Not Applicable

Currently, the report tables list produced quantities of mixed asphalt products (from stationary installations only) and NMVOC, NOx and SO2 emissions caused of this. Only emissions from asphalt production are reported. Figures relative to emissions released during laying of asphalt have not been examined.


Activity data

The applicable quantity of mixed asphalt products produced (activity rate) has been taken from communications of the Deutscher Asphaltverband (DAV; German asphalt association). In total about 660 asphalt-mixing plants produce most recently 38 Million tonnes of hot-mix for road paving 1).

Emission factors

Emission factors have been determined country-specifically, pursuant to Tier 2. For determination of emission factors for emissions measurements from over 400 asphalt-mixing plants, made during the period 1989 through 2000, were used. The majority of the emissions occur during drying of pertinent mineral substances. Almost all of the NMVOC emissions originate in the organic raw materials used, and they are released primarily in parallel-drum operation, as well as from mixers and loading areas. On average, about 50% of the NOx and SOx involved come from the mineral substances (proportional process emissions). CO emissions are calculated solely in connection with fuel inputs.

Table 1: Overview of applied emission factors for production of mixed asphalt, in [kg/t]

EF value EF trend
NMVOC 0.030 constant
NOx 0.015 constant
SOx 0.030 constant
TSP 0.006 constant
PM10 0.0057 constant
PM2.5 0.003 constant

All trends in emissions correspond to trends of production amount. No rising trends are to identify.

Emission trends of road paving


With activity data and emission factors remaining unrevised, no recalculations were carried out compared to the previous submission.

Planned improvements

At the moment, no category-specific improvements are planned.