2.A.5.b - Construction and Demolition

Short description

Category Code Method AD EF
2.A.5.b T1/T2 NS CS

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Method(s) applied
D Default
T1 Tier 1 / Simple Methodology *
T2 Tier 2*
T3 Tier 3 / Detailed Methodology *
CS Country Specific
M Model
* as described in the EMEP/EEA Emission Inventory Guidebook - 2019, in category chapters.
(source for) Activity Data
NS National Statistics
RS Regional Statistics
IS International Statistics
PS Plant Specific
As Associations, business organisations
Q specific Questionnaires (or surveys)
M Model / Modelled
C Confidential
(source for) Emission Factors
D Default (EMEP Guidebook)
CS Country Specific
PS Plant Specific
M Model / Modelled
C Confidential

NOx NMVOC SO2 NH3 PM2.5 PM10 TSP BC CO Heavy Metals POPs

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L/- key source by Level only
-/T key source by Trend only
L/T key source by both Level and Trend
-/- no key source for this pollutant
IE emission of specific pollutant Included Elsewhere (i.e. in another category)
NE emission of specific pollutant Not Estimated (yet)
NA specific pollutant not emitted from this source or activity = Not Applicable

With respect to particle emissions, construction is the second main emissions source in the Mineral industries.


Since the last update of the UNECE Guidebook, a Tier 1 method is applied to estimate particulate matter emissions. The T1 GB method is used by us with various adaptations to national conditions, so this is already higher tier, perhaps as T1/T2.

The approach for uncontrolled fugitive emissions for this source category was adapted for national circumstances within a research Project (Umweltbundesamt, 2016) 1), partly considered exiting control techniques. As a result, the information of the statistics is combined with modified default emission factors for TSP and PM.

Activity data

Activity data are determined taking into account figures for various construction activities. Data is based on production statistics (national statistics). According to the method used, figures of area of land affected by construction activities per building were concluded from statistical data and multiplied with emission factors, as explained below. The common uncertainty of 3% for national statistics could be increased as a result of this calculation, but the effect is not estimated at the moment.

Emission factors

The emission factors used are results of Adaptation of UNECE-Defaults (EEA, 2016) 2).

Table 1: Overview of apllied emission factors, in [kg / m2 * y, for roads in tons / km2 * y]

Kind of building Pollutant EF value EF trend
single and two-family houses TSP 0.0638 constant
PM10 0.0191 constant
PM2.5 0.0019 constant
apartment buildings TSP 0.329 constant
PM10 0.099 constant
PM2.5 0.0099 constant
non-residential TSP 0.631 constant
PM10 0.189 constant
PM2.5 0.0189 constant
roads TSP 1,674 constant
PM10 502 constant
PM2.5 50.2 constant

Several further assumptions were necessary to use the formula of the Guidebook:

EM = EF * B * f * m

The EF is adapted with Moisture Level Correction factor and Silt Content Correction factor in all cases, both 0.20 and 2.22. The assumption about the duration of the construction activity uses the Default values (EEA, 2023)3):

Type of building Estimated duration (year)
Construction of houses (single and two family) 0.5 (6 months)
Construction of apartments (all types) 0.75 (9 months)
Non-residential construction 0.83 (10 months)
Road construction 1 (12 months)

AD is a result of multiplying B the number of houses constructed and f the conversion factor.

All trends in emissions as product of EF and AD correspond to trends of construction activities.

Emission trends in NFR 2.A.5.b


With all input data remaining unrevised, no recalculations were made compared to the previous submission.

Planned improvements

At the moment, no category-specific improvements are planned.


Where can I find emissions estimation of demolition activities? - Demolishing without any significant new construction is not covered and there are no other emission factors available for demolition activities only. Nevertheless you can find Information about emissions from 5.E.2 - Other Waste: Building Fires.

Why do German EFs differ from EEA defaults? - It has to do with the default 50% reduction for non-residential buildings and roads (as a result of wetting unpaved temporary roads) that is assumed in the calculations for Germany. This is also already accounted for in the EPA emission factors. It is a result of a control measure that is nearly always taken but in principle optional. In the Guidebook a 50% reduction is advised.

1) Umweltbundesamt, 2016: Development of Methods for the Generation of Emission Data for Air Pollutants from Building Activity and Construction Zones, Dessau-Roßlau, 2016, https://research.ebsco.com/linkprocessor/plink?id=46c9c9e5-c6f9-3229-b7af-6585eb409115