2.B.6 - Titanium Dioxide Production

Short description

In NFR 2.B.6, SO2,CO, NOx and TSP emissions from the production of titanium dioxide are reported.

Category Code Method AD EF
2.B.6 T3 C C

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Method(s) applied
D Default
T1 Tier 1 / Simple Methodology *
T2 Tier 2*
T3 Tier 3 / Detailed Methodology *
CS Country Specific
M Model
* as described in the EMEP/EEA Emission Inventory Guidebook - 2019, in category chapters.
(source for) Activity Data
NS National Statistics
RS Regional Statistics
IS International Statistics
PS Plant Specific
As Associations, business organisations
Q specific Questionnaires (or surveys)
M Model / Modelled
C Confidential
(source for) Emission Factors
D Default (EMEP Guidebook)
CS Country Specific
PS Plant Specific
M Model / Modelled
C Confidential

NOx NMVOC SO2 NH3 PM2.5 PM10 TSP BC CO Heavy Metals POPs
-/- NA -/- NA NA NA -/- NA -/- NA NA

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L/- key source by Level only
-/T key source by Trend only
L/T key source by both Level and Trend
-/- no key source for this pollutant
IE emission of specific pollutant Included Elsewhere (i.e. in another category)
NE emission of specific pollutant Not Estimated (yet)
NA specific pollutant not emitted from this source or activity = Not Applicable


Activity Data

There are two kinds of processes called chloride process and sulfate process for the production of titanium dioxide. The total production amount of these two processes is attained from the German Federal Statistical Office1).

For the calculation of individual production from each process, the fraction of chloride process is determined based on the estimated total production capacity in Germany (480 kt/y) and the production capacity via chloride process (165 kt/y) 2)3).

Emission Factors

Emission factors for titanium dioxide production are the Tier 2 emission factors from EMEP Guidebook: NOx, CO, and TSP are provided for the chloride process, while only factors for NOx and TSP are available for the sulfate process.

The applied Tier 2 emission factors are listed in Table 1 4).

Table 1: Tier 2 emission factors for titanium dioxide production, in [kg/t]

Pollutant Name of process Emission factor
CO Chloride 159
NOx 0.1
TSP 0.2
NOx Sulfate 0.108
TSP 0.3


The association of the titanium producers reports the sum of SO2 emissions from both processes directly to the UBA. Since submission 2022, these emissions are no longer confidential and were therefore re-allocated from 2.B.10. Besides, CO, NOₓ and TSP emissions are reported since submission 2022.

Except for SO2, emissions of the mentioned pollutants are calculated through the multiplication of activity data and corresponding emission factors.

As the emission factors are constant over time, the emission trend is influenced only by the development of the production.


For SO2 emissions from the production of titanium dioxide and sulphuric acid, estimates reported for the second to last year of the time series are routinely actualised by the producers. Furthermore, final emissions for the last year of the time series are not yet available at the time the inventory is compiled. Therefore, the values reported here represent a prediction and are updated with each new submission as well.

Besides, according to last year's plan for improvement; the origianl SOx emissions for 1990 and 1991 have been published in this submission since they are no longer subject to confidentiality.

Otherwise, no other recalculations have been carried out compared to last year's submission.

Table 2: SOx Emission in 1990 and 1991, in [kt]

Year Submission 2023 Submission 2024
1990 1,73 2,58
1991 1,73 2,35

For pollutant-specific information on recalculated emission estimates for Base Year and 2021, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.

Planned improvements

No category-specific improvements are planned.

1) Production statistics: Until 1994 GP89 - 4612 50, 1995 until 2008 GP241211500 and GP201211500 from 2009 onwards
4) European Environment Agency: EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2019, Part B: sectoral guidance chapters, 2.B Chemical industry (Oct 2019): pp.25-26, table 3.19 and table 3.20