2.C.2 - Ferroalloys Production

Short description

Category Code Method AD EF
2.C.2 T1 IS CS

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Method(s) applied
D Default
T1 Tier 1 / Simple Methodology *
T2 Tier 2*
T3 Tier 3 / Detailed Methodology *
CS Country Specific
M Model
* as described in the EMEP/EEA Emission Inventory Guidebook - 2019, in category chapters.
(source for) Activity Data
NS National Statistics
RS Regional Statistics
IS International Statistics
PS Plant Specific
As Associations, business organisations
Q specific Questionnaires (or surveys)
M Model / Modelled
C Confidential
(source for) Emission Factors
D Default (EMEP Guidebook)
CS Country Specific
PS Plant Specific
M Model / Modelled
C Confidential

NOx NMVOC SO2 NH3 PM2.5 PM10 TSP BC CO Pb Cd Hg As Cr Cu Ni Se Zn POPs

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L/- key source by Level only
-/T key source by Trend only
L/T key source by both Level and Trend
-/- no key source for this pollutant
IE emission of specific pollutant Included Elsewhere (i.e. in another category)
NE emission of specific pollutant Not Estimated (yet)
NA specific pollutant not emitted from this source or activity = Not Applicable

Source category Ferroalloys Production is of minor significance and not a key source.

Ferroalloys are non-ferrous metal aggregates used in steel production. Germany has five producers of ferrochrome, silicon metal and ferrosilicon. These materials are used as alloying agents in stainless-steel production. The only process used in Germany since 1995 is the electric arc process. This process generates only a small amount of process-related emissions (specifically due to electrode consumption). The blast-furnace process, which produces relatively higher emissions, was used to some extent until 1995.

In 2022 the ferroalloys production amounted to 51.3 kt.


Activity data

The activity data from the years 1990 to 1994 has been taken from official production statistics of the Federal Statistical Öffice. Since 1995, the data from the official production statistics is no longer suitable to use in this context. Since then, data from the British Geological Survey [Lit. 2] has been used instead.

The most up-to-date available activity data is from 2021. This data has been carried forward into 2022. A recalculation will be made when updated statistical data is available. In general, this update happens every two years.

Emission factors

The emission factor for TSP (0.1 kg/t for the current year and back to 1998) and the splitting factors for PM10 and PM2.5 were determined in a research project (UBA, 2007) [Lit. 1]. There were higher but decreasing EF for the period 1990 -1997 due to the technology changes.


The uncertainties for the production amounts are 50% and for the emission factors not more than 300%.


Recalculations were required because the activity data carried forward last year have been updated.

For more information on recalculated emission estimates for the Base Year and 2021, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.

Planned improvements

At the moment, no category specific improvements are planned.


Lit. 1: UBA, 2007: Jörß, Wolfram; Handke, Volker; Lambrecht, Udo and Dünnebeil, Frank (2007): Emissionen und Maßnahmenanalyse Feinstaub 2000 – 2020. UBA-TEXTE Nr. 38/2007. Dessau-Roßlau: Umweltbundesamt. URL: https://www.umweltbundesamt.de/publikationen/emissionen-massnahmenanalyse-feinstaub-2000-2020.

Lit. 2: Idoine, N. E., Raycraft, E. R., Price, F., Hobbs, S. F., Deady, E. A., Everett, P., Shaw, R. A., Evans, E. J. & Mills, A. J. (2023). World Mineral Production 2017-2021. Keyworth, Nottingham; URL: https://www2.bgs.ac.uk/mineralsUK/statistics/worldStatistics.html