2.D.3.i - Other Solvent Use

Short description

In source category 2.D.3.i - Other Solvent Use, emissions from various product groups and processes and also from lubricants use in stationary and mobile applications are reported. Relevant pollutants are NMVOC and some heavy metals.

Category Code Pollutants Method AD EF
2.D.3.i T2 NS CS

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Method(s) applied
D Default
T1 Tier 1 / Simple Methodology *
T2 Tier 2*
T3 Tier 3 / Detailed Methodology *
CS Country Specific
M Model
* as described in the EMEP/EEA Emission Inventory Guidebook - 2019, in category chapters.
(source for) Activity Data
NS National Statistics
RS Regional Statistics
IS International Statistics
PS Plant Specific
As Associations, business organisations
Q specific Questionnaires (or surveys)
M Model / Modelled
C Confidential
(source for) Emission Factors
D Default (EMEP Guidebook)
CS Country Specific
PS Plant Specific
M Model / Modelled
C Confidential

NOx NMVOC SO2 NH3 PM2.5 PM10 TSP BC CO Heavy Metals POPs

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L/- key source by Level only
-/T key source by Trend only
L/T key source by both Level and Trend
-/- no key source for this pollutant
IE emission of specific pollutant Included Elsewhere (i.e. in another category)
NE emission of specific pollutant Not Estimated (yet)
NA specific pollutant not emitted from this source or activity = Not Applicable

2.D.3.i - Other solvent use


In sub-category 2.D.3.i - Other product use: Other solvent use the following product groups and processes are taken into consideration:

  • Glass and mineral wool enduction
  • Fat, edible and non-edible oil extraction
  • Application of glues and adhesives (paper and packaging; wood; footwear; transport; Do-it-yourself-applications; others)
  • Preservation of wood
  • Underseal treatment and conservation of vehicles
  • Vehicles dewaxing
  • Other:
    • Plant protectives
    • Dichloromethane in strippers
    • Removal of paints from incorrectly coated aluminium parts
    • Removal of paint from steel parts
    • Concrete additives
    • De-icing (Aircraft de-icing; De-icing of operated areas; Other de-icing applications)
    • Applications in scientific laboratories (R&D; analyses; universities)

General procedure

NMVOC emissions are calculated in accordance with a product-consumption-oriented approach. In this approach, solvent-based products or solvents are allocated to the source category, and then the relevant NMVOC emissions are calculated from those solvent quantities via specific emission factors. Thus, the use of this method is possible with the following valid input figures for each product group:

  • Quantities of VOC-containing (pre-) products and agents used in the report year,
  • The VOC concentrations in these products (substances and preparations),
  • The relevant application and emission conditions (or the resulting specific emission factor).

The quantity of the solvent-based (pre-)product corresponds to the domestic consumption which is the sum of domestic production plus import minus export.

EM_VOC = domestic consumption_(product i) * solvent content * EF_(product i)

The calculated NMVOC emissions of different product groups for a source category are then aggregated. The product / substance quantities used are determined at the product-group level with the help of production and foreign-trade statistics. Where possible, the so-determined domestic-consumption quantities are then further verified via cross-checking with industry statistics.

General information

Since 1990, so the data, NMVOC emissions from use of solvents and solvent-containing products in general have decreased by nearly 60 %. The main emissions reductions have been achieved in the years since 1999. This successful reduction has occurred especially because of regulatory provisions such as the 31st Ordinance on the execution of the Federal Immissions Control Act (Ordinance on the limitation of emissions of volatile organic compounds due to the use of organic solvents in certain facilities – 31. BImSchV), the 2nd such ordinance (Ordinance on the limitation of emissions of highly volatile halogenated organic compounds – 2. BImSchV) and the TA Luft.

Specific information

Until 1999, data of the present source categories 2.D.3.a, 2.D.3.h and 2.D.3.i were treated as one source group. Since 2000, a more detailed data collection enables to follow the development of source group 2.D.3.i, which accounts for about 12 to 26 % of total NMVOC emissions from solvent-based products.

The following product groups cause major emissions in category 2.D.3.i:

  • Concrete additives,
  • Underseal treatment and conservation of vehicles,
  • Application of glues and additives,
  • Deicing and
  • Fat, edible and non-edible oil extraction

In total, these six activities account for 88 and 93 per cent of total NMVOC emissions from 2.D.3.i. A decrease in the NMVOC emissions of Category 2.D.3.i can be observed since 2005 mainly due to a clearly reduced consumption of concrete additives.


Uncertainties for emissions for each technology / application were obtained by error propagation and refer to the 95% confidence interval.

Domestic Consumption: The applied relative uncertainty was ±10% for all applications.

Solvent content: For each application / product, a relative error at ±15% was applied, but not exceeding 100% or falling below 0%.

Emission factors: A relative error at ±15% was applied, but not exceeding 100% or falling below 0%. Exceptions were de-icing applications, applications in scientific laboratories with a relative error at 25%.

Hence, the overall uncertainty of emissions caused by application of products of this source group is between 40% and 60%.


Routinely, the NMVOC emissions of the last reported year must be actualized in the next reporting cycle as the final data of the foreign trade statistics are regularly only available after the publication of the respective reporting year has been completed.

For pollutant-specific information on recalculated emission estimates for Base Year and 2021, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.

Planned improvements

No category-specific improvements are planned.