2.D.3.c - Asphalt Roofing

Short description

Category Code Method AD EF
2.D.3.c T1 AS CS

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Method(s) applied
D Default
T1 Tier 1 / Simple Methodology *
T2 Tier 2*
T3 Tier 3 / Detailed Methodology *
CS Country Specific
M Model
* as described in the EMEP/EEA Emission Inventory Guidebook - 2019, in category chapters.
(source for) Activity Data
NS National Statistics
RS Regional Statistics
IS International Statistics
PS Plant Specific
As Associations, business organisations
Q specific Questionnaires (or surveys)
M Model / Modelled
C Confidential
(source for) Emission Factors
D Default (EMEP Guidebook)
CS Country Specific
PS Plant Specific
M Model / Modelled
C Confidential

NOx NMVOC SO2 NH3 PM2.5 PM10 TSP BC CO Heavy Metals POPs

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L/- key source by Level only
-/T key source by Trend only
L/T key source by both Level and Trend
-/- no key source for this pollutant
IE emission of specific pollutant Included Elsewhere (i.e. in another category)
NE emission of specific pollutant Not Estimated (yet)
NA specific pollutant not emitted from this source or activity = Not Applicable

Bitumen is used in production and laying of roof and sealing sheeting. Roof and sealing sheeting is laid by means of both hot and cold processes.

The hot process, involving welding of sheeting, produces significant emissions of organic substances.

The relevant emissions trends depend primarily on trends in quantities of polymer bitumen sheeting produced. Use of solvent-containing primers is not considered here; it is covered via the solvents model – cf. 2.D.3.a Domestic Solvent Use.

Because of importance from other sources as solvents use, NMVOC emissions are considered and taken into account in this part of the emissions inventory.


Activity data

The quantity of roof and sealing sheeting produced (activity rate) has been provided by the Verband der Dachbahnenindustrie, the roof-sheeting manufacturers association (VDD, actual table exchanged with UBA) ever since a relevant cooperation agreement was concluded.

Emission factors

In the process, a distinction is made between emissions from production and emissions from laying of roof and sealing sheeting. The emission factor for production of roof and sealing sheeting was obtained via a calculation in accordance with current technological standards of German manufacturers (VDD, see activitiy data). The emission factor for laying of polymer bitumen sheeting has been taken from an ecological balance sheet 1). The implied emission factor for the source category has been increasing slightly, as a result of the increasing importance of polymer bitumen sheeting. NMVOC emissions are calculated in keeping with a Tier 1 method, since no pertinent detailed data are available.

Table 1: Overview of applied emission factors, in kg/m²

source of emissions EF value EF trend
NMVOC Production of roofing materials 0.00035795 constant
NMVOC roofing of sheeting and shingle 0.000027 to 0.000040 rising

Emissions from the use of solvents are reported under specific categories of solvents use model, therefore the emission factors used are on a low level. The trend of emission is not influenced importantly by the changing use of material types.

The trend of NMVOC emissions corresponds to trend of production amount. No rising trends are to identify.

Emission trends of road paving


With activity data and emission factors remaining unrevised, no recalculations were carried out compared to the previous submission.

Planned improvements

At the moment, one category-specific improvement is ongoing: due to review issue we try to make progress for implementing emissions of particulate matter. In 2023, the TERT recommended that Germany include emission estimates for 2D3c for particulate matter in the NFR, or otherwise reports on the progress made implementing this improvement in the IIR submission.

In our opinion, the estimation of GB is based on emission factors for PM in g/Mg shingle and in this way not suitable. A conversion factor would needed by the EMEP/EEA Guidebook, if the right emessive activity is adressed. The US approach for production of materials we can't use. And the laying of the materials is in view of particles comparable with normal cleaning activities of roofs.

So we further have to check industrial information, having changed the notation keys to NE for the time being.

1) Kreißig, J. (1996): Ganzheitliche Bilanzierung von Dachbahnen aus Bitumen : Kurzbericht. Frankfurt am Main.