2.A.3 - Glass Production

Short description

Category Code Method AD EF
2.A.3 T2 AS CS
Key Category: -/- -/- -/- -/- -/- -/- -/- - -/- -/- -/- - - - -

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T = key source by Trend L = key source by Level

D Default
T1 Tier 1 / Simple Methodology *
T2 Tier 2*
T3 Tier 3 / Detailed Methodology *
CS Country Specific
M Model
* as described in the EMEP/EEA Emission Inventory Guidebook - 2019, in the group specific chapters.
AD - Data Source for Activity Data
NS National Statistics
RS Regional Statistics
IS International Statistics
PS Plant Specific data
As Associations, business organisations
Q specific Questionnaires (or surveys)
M Model / Modelled
C Confidential
EF - Emission Factors
D Default (EMEP Guidebook)
C Confidential
CS Country Specific
PS Plant Specific data
M Model / Modelled

Germany's glass industry produces a wide range of different glass types that differ in their chemical composition. Germany's glass sector comprises the following sub-sectors: container glass, flat glass, domestic glass, special glass and mineral fibres (glass and stone wool). The largest production quantities are found in the sectors of container glass and flat glass. Further processing and treatment of glass and glass objects are not considered.


The emissions are calculated via a higher Tier method resembling a Tier 2 method, as the activity rates are tied to specific emission factors for different glass types.

Activity data

The production figures are taken from the regularly appearing annual reports of the Federal Association of the German Glass Industry (Bundesverband Glasindustrie; BV Glas). “Production” refers to the amount of glass produced, which is considered to be equivalent to the amount of glass melted down.

Emission factors

The procedure used to determine emission factors for the various glass types involved and the pertinent emissions is described in detail in reports of two research projects (2008: Report-No. 0012641), 2021: Texte 45/20212)). The emission factors were calculated for the various industry sectors. The factors vary over time in keeping with industry monitoring, not only as steady trends, but falling in most cases. The most recently EF are for different glass types the following:

Table 1: Overview of most recently applied emission factors

Unit Container glass flat glass domestic glass special glass glass wool stone wool
NOx kg/ t 10.766 17.708 28.602 35.558 0.5883 1.877
SO2 kg/ t 0.759 15.677 0.0599 0.1157 0.1847 2.229
NMVOC kg/ t NA NA NA NA 0.6 0.657
CO kg/ t 0.0732 0.0241 0.0661 0.1195 0.06 0.185
NH3 kg/ t 0.0026 0.0191 NA 0.0295 1.10 1.163
TSP kg/ t 0.00863 0.01681 0.015 0.00765 0.01096 0.643
PM10 kg/ t 0.00742 0.01429 0.0129 0.0065 0.00932 0.0234
PM2.5 kg/ t 0.00483 0.00773 0.0069 0.00352 0.00504 0.0128
As g/ t 0.0279 0.0104 0.0023 0.1143 0.0354 NE
Pb g/ t 0.1237 0.0104 0.0076 0.1158 0.1571 NE
Cd g/ t 0.0032 0.0005 0 0.0028 0.0041 NE
Cr g/ t 0.0186 0.0029 0.0007 0.0148 0.0236 NE
Cu g/ t 0.0035 0.02 0.0002 0.0085 0.0056 NE
Ni g/ t 0.0048 0.0061 0.0003 0.0142 0.0061 NE
Se g/ t 0.2794 0.0427 0.1273 0.0454 0.01 NE

For each glass type the estimated EF are explained in ‘Texte 45/2021’ with an expert votum and uncertainty estimation.

Trends in emissions correspond to trends of emission factors and of production development. The resulting trends are not constant, as a result of different EF for various glass types. So emissions of NOx and SO2 couldn't decrease last years due to increased production Level of relevant products.

Emission trends in NFR 2.A.3


Recalculations were necessary due to corrected emission factors for CO and NOx. The significant changes can be shown as an absolute difference over time as follows:

Recalculations in NFR 2.A.3

All minor changes in 2020 were influenced by a AD-correction.

For pollutant-specific information on recalculated emission estimates for Base Year and 2020, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.

Planned improvements

No further improvements are planned.

1) UFoPlan FKZ 206 42 300/02: Teilvorhaben 02: „Providing up-to-date emission data for the glass and mineral fiber industry“ downloading via search “UBA-FB 001264” in (https://doku.uba.de ⇒ OPAC ⇒ use parameter ‘Signatur’
2) ReFoPlan FKZ – 3719 52 1010: „Revision of emission factors for air pollutants in the cement clinker production and glass manufacturing sectors“ downloading via https://www.umweltbundesamt.de/sites/default/files/medien/5750/publikationen/2021-03-18_texte_45-2021_luftschadstoff_glasindustrie.pdf