1.B.2.a - Oil

Category Code Method AD EF
1.B.2.a.i T2 AS CS
1.B.2.a.iv T2 AS CS
1.B.2.a.v T2 AS CS
Key Category SO₂ NOₓ NH₃ NMVOC CO BC Pb Hg Cd Diox PAH HCB TSP PM₁₀ PM₂ ₅
1.B.2.a.i - - - -/- - - - - - - - - - - -
1.B.2.a.iv -/- -/- - -/- -/- - - - - - - - - - -
1.B.2.a.v - - - -/T - - - - - - - - - - -


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T = key source by Trend L = key source by Level

D Default
RA Reference Approach
T1 Tier 1 / Simple Methodology *
T2 Tier 2*
T3 Tier 3 / Detailed Methodology *
CS Country Specific
M Model
* as described in the EMEP/CORINAIR Emission Inventory Guidebook - 2007, in the group specific chapters.
AD - Data Source for Activity Data
NS National Statistics
RS Regional Statistics
IS International Statistics
PS Plant Specific data
AS Associations, business organisations
Q specific questionnaires, surveys
EF - Emission Factors
D Default (EMEP Guidebook)
C Confidential
CS Country Specific
PS Plant Specific data

1.B.2.a.i - Exploration, production, transport

Emissions from exploration consist of emissions from activities of drilling companies and other actors in the exploration sector. Gas and oil exploration takes place in Germany. According to the BVEG (former WEG) 1), virtually no fugitive emissions occur in connection with drilling operations, since relevant measurements are regularly carried out at well sites (with use of methane sensors in wellhead-protection structures, ultrasound measurements and annulus manometers) and old / decommissioned wells are backfilled and normally covered with concrete caps.

Activity data Unit 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2018 2019
number of wells No. 12 17 15 23 16 18 19 26
total of drilling meter m 50,140 109,187 41,378 63,994 51,411 32,773 25,961 43,416

Since pertinent measurements are not available for the individual wells involved, a conservative approach is used whereby VOC emissions for wells are calculated on the basis of the share ratio of VOC = 9 NMVOC : 1 CH4, using the default methane factor of the IPCC Guidelines 2006 2).

Source of emission factor Substance Unit Value
exploration NMVOC kg/No 576

Emissions from extraction (crude oil) and first treatment of raw materials (petroleum) in the petroleum industry are included in 1.B.2.a.i as well. Because Germany's oil fields are old, oil production in Germany is highly energy-intensive (thermal extraction, operation of pumps to inject water into oil-bearing layers). The first treatment that extracted petroleum (crude oil) undergoes in processing facilities serves the purpose of removing gases, water and salt from the oil. Crude oil in the form present at wellheads contains impurities, gases and water and thus, does not conform to requirements for safe, easy transport in pipelines. No substance transformations take place. Impurities – especially gases (petroleum gas), salts and water – are removed in order to yield crude oil of suitable quality for transport in pipelines.

Activity Data Unit 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2018 2019
oil produced kt 3,606 2,959 3,123 3,573 2,516 2,414 2,070 1,927

The emissions from production and processing are measured or calculated by the operators, and the pertinent data is published in the annual reports of the Federal association of the natural gas, oil and geothermal energy industries (BVEG) 3). The emission factors are determined from the reported emissions and the activity data.

Source of emission factor Substance Unit Value
Crude oil production NMVOC kg/m³ 0.0157

Transport emissions are tied to activities of logistics companies and of pipeline operators and pipeline networks. After the first treatment, crude oil is transported to refineries. Almost all transport of crude oil takes place via pipelines. Pipelines are stationary and, normally, run underground. In contrast to other types of transport, petroleum transport is not interrupted by handling processes.

activity data unit 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2018 2019
Transport of domestically produced crude oil kt 3,660 2,940 3,123 3,572 2,516 2,414 2,070 1,927
Transport of imported crude oil kt 84,043 86,063 89,280 97,474 93,270 91,275 85,205 85,991
Transport via inland-waterway tankers kt 89 67 112 176 6 43 38 47

For pipelines, the emission factor for inland-waterway tankers has been estimated by experts. The pertinent emission factors have been confirmed by the research project “Determination of emission factors and activity data in areas 1.B.2.a.i through vi” 4). Since long-distance pipelines are continually monitored and disruptive incidents in such pipelines are very rare 5), emissions occur – in small quantities – only at their transfer points. The emission factor is thus highly conservative. The emission factor covers the areas of transfer / injection into pipelines at pumping stations, all infrastructure along pipelines (connections, control units, measuring devices), and transfer at refineries, and it has been determined on the basis of conservative assumptions. For imported quantities, only one transfer point (the withdrawal station) is assumed, since the station for input into the pipeline network does not lie on Germany's national territory.

Source of emission factor Substance Unit Value
Transports of domestically produced crude oil NMVOC kg/t 0.13
Transports of imported crude oil NMVOC kg/t 0.064
Transports via inland-waterway tankers NMVOC kg/t 0.34

1.B.2.a.iv- Refining / storage

Emissions in category 1.B.2.a.iv - Refining / storage consist of emissions from activities of refineries and of refining companies in the petroleum industry. Crude oil and intermediate petroleum products are processed in Germany. For the most part, the companies concerned receive crude oil for refining and processing. To some extent, intermediate petroleum products undergo further processing outside of refineries in processing networks. Such processing takes place in state-of-the-art plants.

Refinery tank storage systems are used to store both crude oil and intermediate and finished petroleum products. They thus differ from non-refinery tank storage systems in terms of both the products they store and the quantities they handle. Tank-storage facilities outside of refineries are used especially for interim storage of heating oil, gasoline and diesel fuel. The storage capacities of storage caverns for petroleum products are listed separately. In light of the ways in which storage caverns are structured, it may be assumed that no emissions of volatile compounds occur. This is taken into account in the emissions calculation.

Tanks are emptied and cleaned routinely before tank inspections and repairs. In tank cleaning, a distinction is made between crude-oil tanks and product tanks. Because sediments accumulate in crude oil tanks, cleaning these tanks, in comparison to cleaning product tanks, is a considerably more laborious process. The substances in product tanks produce no sediments and thus are cleaned only when the products they contain are changed. In keeping with an assessment of Müller-BBM (2010)6), the emission factors for storage of crude oil and of petroleum products may be assumed to take the cleaning processes into account.

activity data unit 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2018 2019
Quantity of crude oil refined kt 107,058 96,475 107,632 114,589 95,378 93,391 87,676 87,000
Capacity utilisation in refineries % 106 92 95 99 81 91 85 85
Crude-oil-refining capacity in refineries kt 100,765 104,750 112,940 115,630 117,630 103,080 102,655 102,700
Tank-storage capacity in refineries and pipeline terminals Mill m³ 27,1 28,4 24,9 24 22,5 22 20,8 20,7
Storage capacity of tank-storage facilities outside of refineries Mill m³ 15,4 15,9 18,1 17 15,9 15,3 15,5 15,4
Storage capacity of caverns Mill m³ 26,6 25,3 27,9 27,2 27,2 25,5 25,5 26,7

Processing The emission factors used for NMVOC, CO, NOₓ and SO₂ were determined by evaluating the emission declarations of the period 2004 through 2016 in the framework of a research project (Bender & von Müller, 2019) 7).

Tank-storage facilities in refineries

In keeping with the results of the research project “Processing of data of emissions declarations pursuant to the 11th Ordinance Implementing the Federal Immission Control Act – the area of storage facilities” (Müller-BBM, 2010) 8), the crude-oil-distillation capacity is used as the activity data for estimating emissions from storage in refineries. The fugitive VOC emissions value specified in the VDI Guideline 2440 9), 0.16 kg/t, may be used as the emission factor. The EF for methane was derived from it (5-10 % of 0.16 kg) and then suitably deducted.

Tank-storage facilities outside of refineries

According to Müller-BBM (2010) 10), no emission factors could be derived by evaluating emission declarations for storage systems, which would be representative of individual systems. This is due, according to the same source, to the widely differing emission behaviours of different individual systems. It was possible, however, to form aggregated emission factors. For each relevant group of data, this was done by correlating the sums of all emissions with the sums of all capacities. For non-refinery tank-storage systems, storage of liquid petroleum products can be differentiated from storage of gaseous petroleum products, since the relevant data is suitably differentiated.

Claus plants

The emission factors used for NMVOC, CO, NOₓ und SO₂ were determined by evaluating emission declarations from refineries for the period 2004 through 2016, in the framework of a research project (Bender & von Müller, 2019)11). Since no data was available for earlier years, the data obtained this way was used for all years as of 1990.

Source of emission factor Substance Unit Value
Fugitive emissions at refineries NMVOC kg/t 0.0072
Fugitive emissions at refineries NOₓ kg/t 0.00602
Fugitive emissions at refineries SO₂ kg/t 0.00085
Fugitive emissions at refineries CO kg/t 0.000494
Storage and cleaning of crude oil in tank-storage facilities of refineries NMVOC kg/t 0.0227
Storage of liquid petroleum products in tank-storage facilities outside of refineries NMVOC g/m³ 100
Storage of gaseous petroleum products in tank-storage facilities outside of refineries NMVOC g/m³ 500
Claus Plants NMVOC kg/t 0.000025
Claus Plants NOₓ kg/t 0.0022
Claus Plants SO₂ kg/t 0.048
Claus Plants CO kg/t 0.0036

Emissions from storage currently consider all refinery products. It is planed to split those emissions into fuel-related and chemical-product-related emissions. While fuel-related will still be reported under 1.B.2 emissions other then fuels (like naphtha, methanol etc.) will be reported under 2.B.10.b - Storage, Handling and Transport of Chemical Products in submission 2022.

1.B.2.a.v- Distribution of oil products

In category 1.B.2.a.v - Distribution of oil products, the emissions from distribution of oil products are described. Petroleum products are transported by ship, product pipelines, railway tanker cars and tanker trucks, and they are transferred from tank to tank. The main sources of NMVOC emissions from petrol distribution as a whole were fugitive emissions from handling and transfer (filling/unloading) and container losses (tank breathing). Experts consider the emissions from aircraft refuelling to be non-existent, since the equipment used for such refuelling is fitted with dry couplings. The emissions from filling private heating-oil tanks are also very low thanks to high safety standards. In this category, petroleum products that have undergone fractional distillation in refineries are handled and distributed, i.e. processes in which gaseous products are separated out. For this reason, no significant methane emissions are expected. Only in storage of certain petroleum products can small quantities of methane escape.

activity data Unit 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2018 2019
number of petrol stations No 19,317 17,957 16,324 15,187 14,744 14,531 14,459 14,449
distribution of diesel kt 21,817 26,208 28,922 28,531 32,128 36,756 37,475 37,848
distribution of jet fuel kt 4,584 5,455 6,939 8,049 8,465 8,550 10,239 10,239
distribution of light heating oil kt 31,803 34,785 27,875 25,380 21,005 16,127 13,256 15,061
distribution of domestic petrol kt 31,257 30,333 28,833 23,431 19,634 18,226 17,837 17,966


Inland-waterway gasoline tankers retain considerable quantities of gasoline vapours in their tanks after their gasoline has been unloaded. When the ships change loads or spend time in port, their tanks have to be ventilated. With such ships being ventilated on average 277 times per year, the quantity of NMVOC emitted in these operations amounts to 336 - 650 t 12). The highest value in the range is used to calculate the relevant emissions. About 13 million m³ of gasoline fuel are transported annually in Germany via railway tank cars. Transfer/handling (filling/unloading) and tank losses result in annual emissions of only 1,400 t VOC 13). The emissions situation points to the high technical standards that have been attained in railway tank cars and pertinent handling facilities.

Filling stations

Significant quantities of fugitive VOC emissions are released into the environment during transfers from tanker vehicles to storage facilities and during refuelling of vehicles. To determine emissions, a standardised emission factor of 1.4 kg/t is used. This value refers to the saturation concentration for hydrocarbon vapours and thus, corresponds to the maximum possible emissions level in the absence of reduction measures. The immission-control regulations issued in 1992 and 1993 (20th BImSchV 14); 21st BImSchV, 15)) that required filling stations to limit such emissions promoted a range of reduction measures. The relevant reductions affect both the area of gasoline transfer and storage (20th BImSchV) and the area of fuelling of vehicles with gasoline at filling stations (21st BImSchV). The use of required emissions-control equipment, such as vapour-balancing (20th BImSchV) and vapour-recovery (21st BImSchV) systems, along with the use of automatic monitoring systems (via the amendment of the 21st BImSchV on 6 May 2002), have brought about continual reductions of VOC emissions; the relevant high levels of use of such equipment are shown in the table below (Table 151). In emissions calculation, the two ordinances’ utilisation and efficiency requirements for filling stations in service are taken into account. The following assumptions, based on the technical options currently available, are applied:

Ordinance Factor
20th BImSchV Vapour balancing Degree of utilisation 98 %
20th BImSchV Vapour balancing Efficiency 98 %
21st BImSchV Vapour recovery Degree of utilisation 98 %
21st BImSchV Vapour recovery Efficiency 85 %

In addition, permeation of hydrocarbons occurs in tank hoses. The DIN EN 1360 standard sets a limit of 12 ml / hose meter per day for such permeation. From analysis of measurements, UBA experts have adopted a conservative factor of 10ml/m per day. That factor is used to determine the NMVOC emissions. The calculation is carried out in accordance with the pertinent formula of the University of Stuttgart's Institute for Machine Components 16):

Number of service stations * number of fuel pumps per service station * number of hoses per fuel pump * hose length * emission factor.

Cleaning of transport vehicles

Tank interiors are cleaned prior to tank repairs and safety inspections, in connection with product changes and with lease changes. The inventory currently covers cleaning of railway tank cars. The residual amounts remaining in railway car tanks after these have been emptied – normally, between 0 and 30 litres (up to several hundred litres in exceptional cases) – are not normally able to evaporate completely. They thus produce emissions when the insides of tanks are cleaned. Each year, some 2,500 cleaning operations are carried out on railway tank cars that transport gasoline. The emissions released, via exhaust air, in connection with cleaning tank cars' interiors amount to about 40,000 kg/a VOC (Joas et al., 2004), p. 34. 17). Any additional prevention and reduction measures could affect emissions in this category only slightly. At the same time, emissions can be somewhat further reduced from their current levels via a combination of various technical and organizational measures. Emissions during handling – for example, during transfer to railway tank cars – are produced especially by residual amounts of gasoline that remain after tanks have been emptied. Such left-over quantities in tanks can release emissions via manholes the next time the tanks are filled. A study is thus underway to determine the extent to which “best practice” is being followed at all handling stations, and whether this extent has to be taken into account in emissions determination. In addition, improvements of fill nozzles enhance efficiency in prevention of VOC emissions during refuelling. Pursuant to the UBA text (Joas et al., 2004), 18) a total of 1/3 of all relevant transports are carried out with railway tank cars. The remaining 2/3 of all transports are carried out by other means – primarily with road tankers. The 1/3 to 2/3 relationship given by the report is assumed to be also applicable to the emissions occurring in connection with cleaning. Currently, the inventory includes 36,000 kg of NMVOC emissions from cleaning of railway tank cars. Emissions from cleaning of other transport equipment – primarily road tankers – are derived from that figure; they amount to about 70,000 kg NMVOC. More-thorough emissions collection upon opening of manholes of railway tank cars (a volume of about 14.6 m³ escapes), along with more thorough treatment of exhaust from cleaning tank interiors, could further reduce VOC emissions. Exhaust cleansing is assumed to be carried out via one-stage active-charcoal adsorption. For an initial load of 1 kg/m³, exhaust concentration levels can be reduced by 99.5 %, to less than 5 g/m³. As a result, the remaining emissions amount to only 1.1 t. This is equivalent to a reduction of about 97 % from the determined level of 36.5 t/a (without adsorption) (Joas et al. (2004), p. 34) 19).

Generally, the emission factors listed below have been verified by the study 20).

Process responsible for NMVOC emissions Emission factor [kg/t]
Drip losses in refuelling at filling stations gasoline 0.117
Transfers from road tankers to filling stations (20th Ordinance Implementing the Federal Immission Control Act – vapour displacement) gasoline 1.4
Ventilation in connection with transports with inland-waterway tankers gasoline 0.025
Transfers from filling station tanks to vehicle tanks (21st Ordinance Implementing the Federal Immission Control Act – vapour recovery) gasoline 1.4
Drip losses in refuelling at filling stations diesel 0.1
Transports from refineries to transport vehicles diesel 0.008
Transfers from filling-station tanks to vehicle tanks diesel 0.003
Drip losses in refuelling at transfer stations light heating oil 0.0011
Transports from refineries to transport vehicles light heating oil 0.0053
Transfers from filling-station tanks to vehicle tanks light heating oil 0.0063


Please refer to overarching chapter 1.B - Fugitive Emissions from fossil fuels

Planned improvements

Emissions from storage of refinery products will be divided up to fuels (under 1.B) and chemical products (2.B) - please see info box under 1.B.2.a.iv.


1) WEG (2008). Report of the Association of Oil and Gas Producing “Erdgas – Erdöl. Entstehung-Suche-Förderung”, Hannover, 34 S. External Link, PDF
2) IPCC (2006). 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme, Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Tanabe K. (eds). Published: IGES, Japan. External Link
3) BVEG (2019). Annual report of the Association of Oil and Gas Producing “Die E&P-Industrie in Zahlen. Statisticher Bericht 2019: Zahlen”. External Link
4), 20) Theloke, J., Kampffmeyer, T., Kugler, U., Friedrich, R., Schilling, S., Wolf, L., & Springwald, T. (2013). Ermittlung von Emissionsfaktoren und Aktivitätsraten im Bereich IPCC (1996) 1.B.2.a. i-vi - Diffuse Emissionen aus Mineralöl und Mineralölprodukten (Förderkennzeichen 360 16 033). Stuttgart.
5) Cech, M., Davis, P., Gambardella, F., Haskamp, A., González, P. H., Spence, M., & Larivé, J.-F. (2017). Performance of European cross-country oil pipelines - Statistical summary of reported spillages in 2015 and since 1971 External Link
6), 8), 10) Müller-BBM (2010). UBA research project No. 3707 42 103/ 01, Aufbereitung von Daten der Emissionserklärungen gemäß 11. BImSchV aus dem Jahre 2004 für die Verwendung bei der UNFCC- und UNECE-Berichterstattung - Bereich Lageranlagen (Bericht Nr. M74 244/7, UBA FKZ 3707 42 103/01). External Link
7), 11) Bender, M., & von Müller, G. (2019). Konsolidierung der Treibhausgasemissionsberechnungen unter der 2. Verpflichtungsperiode des Kyoto-Protokolls und der neuen Klimaschutz-Berichterstattungspflichten an die EU (FKZ 3716 41 107 0).
9) VDI (2000). VDI-Richtlinie 2440: Emissionsminderung - Mineralölraffinerien, published by V. D. I.
12) Bauer, S., Polcher, D. A., & Greßmann, A. (2010). Evaluierung der Anforderungen der 20. BImSchV für Binnentankschiffe im Hinblick auf die Wirksamkeit der Emissionsminderung klimarelevanter Gase (FKZ 3709 45 326). München.
13), 17), 18), 19) Dr. R. Joas; A. Potrykus; R. Schott; S. Wenzel (2004). “VOC-Minderungspotenzial beim Transport und Umschlag von Mineralölprodukten mittels Kesselwagen”, FKZ 202 44 372, UBA-Texte 12/2004, Dessau. External Link
14) 20. BImSchV - Zwanzigste Verordnung zur Durchführung des Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetzes (Verordnung zur Begrenzung der Emissionen flüchtiger organischer Verbindungen beim Umfüllen oder Lagern von Ottokraftstoffen, Kraftstoffgemischen oder Rohbenzin) in der Fassung der Bekanntmachung vom 18. August 2014(BGBl. I S. 1447), die durch Artikel 2 der Verordnung vom 24. März 2017 (BGBl. I S. 656) geändert worden ist, published by BGBl (2017).
15) 21. BImSchV - Verordnung zur Begrenzung der Kohlenwasserstoffemissionen bei der Betankung von Kraftfahrzeugen in der Fassung der Bekanntmachung vom 18. August 2014 (BGBl. I S. 1453), die zuletzt durch Artikel 3 der Verordnung vom 24. März 2017 (BGBl. I S. 656) geändert worden ist, published by BGBl. (2017).
16) Haas, W. (2015). Kraftstoffpermeation an Zapfsäulen.