2.A.5.a - Quarrying & Mining - Other Than Coal

Category Code Method AD EF
2.A.5.a T1 NS D
Key Category SO₂ NOₓ NH₃ NMVOC CO BC Pb Hg Cd Diox PAH HCB TSP PM₁₀ PM₂ ₅
2.A.5.a - - - - - - - - - - - - L/- L/T L/-

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T = key source by Trend L = key source by Level

D Default
RA Reference Approach
T1 Tier 1 / Simple Methodology *
T2 Tier 2*
T3 Tier 3 / Detailed Methodology *
CS Country Specific
M Model
* as described in the EMEP/CORINAIR Emission Inventory Guidebook - 2007, in the group specific chapters.
AD - Data Source for Activity Data
NS National Statistics
RS Regional Statistics
IS International Statistics
PS Plant Specific data
AS Associations, business organisations
Q specific questionnaires, surveys
EF - Emission Factors
D Default (EMEP Guidebook)
C Confidential
CS Country Specific
PS Plant Specific data

For particulate emissions, Mining is the main emissions source in the Mineral industries.

In Germany we use two approaches - one for Sands and rocks, one for salts.

Short description - Sands and Rocks

The mining process emits relevant amounts of particles. Quarrying and mining of minerals other than coal is subsumed, in particular mining of limestone, hard rock and building Sands, with rising recycled materials.


With the use of the 2019 GB method 1), a Tier 2 method is available that can reflect different national conditions. In particular, this concerns input variables on humidity and wind speed, which are differentiated into twelve regions.

Activity Data

As provided for in the GB model, we use AD in the split hard rock, sand and recycled material. These AD are taken from association information because the national statistics are not complete 2). Data gaps are interpolated for time series concsistency. The application of the method therefore resulted in higher AD.

Emission factors

The calculation of emissions takes into account national circumstances and reduction measures.The calculations are available in total more than ten Excel files (individual years since 1990, annually from 2010). Since the GB tool in principle calculates emissions for exactly one year 3), files must be available for exactly those years in which input data are available. Intermediate years are interpolated in case of data gaps.

With the help of the GB tools, IEFs are reported on an annual basis, which are used for the inventory method AR x EF. The emission factors are virtual, but the calculation of this can be modified if further information on the parameters of the GB-tool is available.

Trend discussion

Trends in emissions follow the shrinking mining activities.

Emission trends in NFR 2.A.5.a


Recalculations were necessary due to minor revised AD for the last recent year.

Planned improvements

At the moment, it is planned to take into account more Country specific conditions and more temporal changes of these.

Short description - Salt Production

Salt production is a sub-category of the mining activities in respect of the country specific approach used. Currently, a Tier 1 method is used: information on production of salts are multiplied with emission factors for TSP and PM.


Activity data

The data from national statistics includes production of potash and rock salt. Potash salt is dominating, nevertheless gaps of statistics are filled and emissions are modelled as potash salt only.

Emission factors

The emission factors are based on analogy to bulk product handling by an expert judgements from UBA:

Table 2: Overview of applied emission factors, in kg/t salt

Pollutant EF value EF trend
TSP 0.031 constant
PM₁₀ 0.016 constant
PM₂.₅ 0.003 constant

Planned improvements

At the moment, no category-specific improvements are planned.

1) EMEP/EEA, 2019: EEA Report No 13/2019 EMEP EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2019, Copenhagen, 2019; URL: https://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-guidebook-2019/part-b-sectoral-guidance-chapters/2-industrial-processes/2-a-mineral-products/2-a-5-a-quarrying/view
2) European Industry Association data are published annually at https://uepg.eu/pages/figures. Within the framework of technical consultations, historical data were confirmed by the National Association for Mineral Resources (https://www.bv-miro.org/).
3) EMEP/EEA, 2019: EEA Report No 13/2019 EMEP EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2019, Copenhagen, 2019; URL: https://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-guidebook-2019/part-b-sectoral-guidance-chapters/2-industrial-processes/2-a-mineral-products/2-a-5-a-quarrying-1/view