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sector:ippu:mineral_industry:cement_production:start [2021/02/03 11:59]
gniffke [Emission factors]
sector:ippu:mineral_industry:cement_production:start [2021/12/15 20:00] (current)
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 ===== Short description ===== ===== Short description =====
  
-^  Method   AD  ^  EF  ^  Key Category +Category Code   Method                                ||||^  AD                                ||||^  EF                                  ||||| 
-|  T1      |  AS  |  CS  |  **L:** Hg     +| 2.A.1          T1                                    |||||  AS                                |||||  CS                                  ||||| 
- +^  Key Category   SO₂      NOₓ  ^  NH₃  ^  NMVOC  ^  CO    BC    Pb    Hg    Cd    Diox  ^  PAH  ^  HCB  ^  TSP  ^  PM₁₀  ^  PM₂ ₅  ^ 
- +| 2.A.1           |  -/-        |  -/-  |  -/-  |  -/-    |  -    |  -    |  -/-   L/-  |  -/-  |  -/-    -/-  |  -    |  -/-  |  -/-    -/-    
-The remarks below refer to production of cement clinkers and clinker grinding (only relevant as a source for particulate matter). The clinker-burning with intensive use of energy emits climate-relevant gases. CO₂ accounts for the great majority of these emissions, but heavy metals are important too. Information about the key source relevance can be found in [[[2-a-mineral-industry | 2.A Mineral Industry]]]. +{{page>general:Misc:LegendEIT:start}} 
 +\\ 
 +The remarks below refer to production of cement clinkers and clinker grinding (only relevant as a source for particulate matter). The clinker-burning with intensive use of energy emits climate-relevant gases. CO₂ accounts for the great majority of these emissions, but heavy metals are important too.
 ===== Methodology ===== ===== Methodology =====
  
 ==== Activity data ==== ==== Activity data ====
  
-Activity data are determined via summation of figures for individual plants (until 1994, activity data were determined on the basis of data of the official member association BDZ). As of 1995, following optimisation of data collection within the association, activity data were compiled by the   [[https://www.vdz-online.de/home1.html?&L=1|German Cement Works Association]] (VDZ), and by its [[https://www.vdz-online.de/en/vdz/research-institute/|VDZ research institute]] (located in Düsseldorf), via surveys of German cement plants. The data are supplemented with data for plants that are not BDZ members (in part, also VDZ estimates). +//cement clinker// 
 + 
 +Activity data are determined via summation of figures for individual plants (until 1994, activity data were determined on the basis of data of the official member association BDZ). As of 1995, following optimisation of data collection within the association, activity data were compiled by the   [[https://www.vdz-online.de|German Cement Works Association]] (VDZ), and by its [[https://www.vdz-online.de/forschung|VDZ research institute]] (located in Düsseldorf), via surveys of German cement plants. The data are supplemented with data for plants that are not BDZ members (in part, also VDZ estimates). 
  
 For internal reasons within the association, the data for the years from 2015 onwards is not available from the VDZ. Instead, the cement clinker specification is based on aggregated plant specific ETS-data of DEHSt. A comparison for the years 2005-2014 showed a good correlation between information of the European Emissions Trading (ETS) and the cement clinker production data of the VDZ. So, the cement clinker information from 2015 onwards is based on aggregated data of ETS. All companies are required to report production data within the framework of CO₂-ETS. The EU monitoring guidelines for emissions trading specify a maximum accuracy of 2.5%. For internal reasons within the association, the data for the years from 2015 onwards is not available from the VDZ. Instead, the cement clinker specification is based on aggregated plant specific ETS-data of DEHSt. A comparison for the years 2005-2014 showed a good correlation between information of the European Emissions Trading (ETS) and the cement clinker production data of the VDZ. So, the cement clinker information from 2015 onwards is based on aggregated data of ETS. All companies are required to report production data within the framework of CO₂-ETS. The EU monitoring guidelines for emissions trading specify a maximum accuracy of 2.5%.
 Furthermore CKD was taken into account.  According to the VDZ, the share of bypass dust in clinker production was between 1% and 2% between 2009 and 2016. For the inclusion as an activity rate, it can be assumed that the share was 2 % from 2009 onwards, for time before only 1%. Furthermore CKD was taken into account.  According to the VDZ, the share of bypass dust in clinker production was between 1% and 2% between 2009 and 2016. For the inclusion as an activity rate, it can be assumed that the share was 2 % from 2009 onwards, for time before only 1%.
 +
 +//grinded cement//
 +
 +This figure is provided by VDZ, but calculated with statistical Data [(Sum of two Statistical-IDs: GP19-235112100 and GP19-235112900)]
  
 ==== Emission factors ==== ==== Emission factors ====
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 __Table 1: Overview of applied emission factors__ __Table 1: Overview of applied emission factors__
-^ Pollutant     ^^ Name of Category         ^^ EF                 ^^ Unit           ^^ Trend             ^^ +^ Pollutant     |^ Name of Category         |^ EF             |^ Unit          |^ Trend            || 
-^ NOₓ           ^| clinker burning          ||   0.60            ||  kg/t          ||  falling          || +^ NOₓ           || clinker burning          ||  0.5           ||  kg/t         ||  falling         || 
-^ SO₂           ^| clinker burning          ||    0.26           ||  kg/t          ||  falling          || +^ SO₂           || clinker burning          ||  0.25          ||  kg/t         ||  falling         || 
-^ NMVOC         ^| clinker burning          ||    0.046          ||  kg/t          ||  constant         || +^ NMVOC         || clinker burning          ||  0.046         ||  kg/t         ||  constant        || 
-^ NH₃           ^| clinker burning          ||    0.055          ||  kg/t          ||  falling          || +^ NH₃           || clinker burning          ||  0.044         ||  kg/t         ||  falling         || 
-^ Hg            ^| clinker burning          ||    0.024          ||  g/t           ||  falling          || +^ Hg            || clinker burning          ||  0.022         ||  g/t          ||  falling         || 
-^ Pb            ^| clinker burning          ||    0.017          ||  g/t           ||  falling          || +^ Pb            || clinker burning          ||  0.016         ||  g/t          ||  falling         || 
-^ Cd            ^| clinker burning          ||    0.005          ||  g/t           ||  falling          || +^ Cd            || clinker burning          ||  0.004         ||  g/t          ||  falling         || 
-^ PCB           ^| clinker burning          ||    28.0           ||  µg/t          ||  constant         || +^ PCB           || clinker burning          ||  28.0          ||  µg/t         ||  constant        || 
-^ PCDD          ^| clinker burning          ||    0.040          ||  µg/t          ||  constant         || +^ PCDD          || clinker burning          ||  0.040         ||  µg/t         ||  constant        || 
-^ B(a)P         ^| clinker burning          ||    1.0            ||  mg/t          ||  constant         || +^ B(a)P         || clinker burning          ||  1.0           ||  mg/t         ||  constant        || 
-^ PAH           ^| clinker burning          ||    240            ||  mg/t          ||  constant         || +^ PAH           || clinker burning          ||  240           ||  mg/t         ||  constant        || 
-^ //TSP//       ^| //clinker grinding//     ||    //0.049//      ||  //kg/t//      ||  //falling//      || +^ //TSP//       || //clinker grinding//     ||  //0.046//     ||  //kg/t//     ||  //falling//     || 
-^ //PM₁₀//      ^| //clinker grinding//     ||    //0.044//      ||  //kg/t//      ||  //falling//      || +^ //PM₁₀//      || //clinker grinding//     ||  //0.041//     ||  //kg/t//     ||  //falling//     || 
-^ //PM₂.₅//     ^| //clinker grinding//     ||    //0.041//      ||  //kg/t//      ||  //falling//      ||+^ //PM₂.₅//     || //clinker grinding//     ||  //0.037//     ||  //kg/t//     ||  //falling//     ||
  
 Emissions of HCB are not applicable according to a research result. The table of EF is related to two different AD sets. For purposes of the most pollutants the AD is burnt clinker. For purposes of emission estimation of PM the AD is grinded clinker (included further materials as domestic burnt clinker). NFR tables could provide only one AD (burnt clinker). Emissions of HCB are not applicable according to a research result. The table of EF is related to two different AD sets. For purposes of the most pollutants the AD is burnt clinker. For purposes of emission estimation of PM the AD is grinded clinker (included further materials as domestic burnt clinker). NFR tables could provide only one AD (burnt clinker).
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 All trends in emissions correspond to trends of emission factors in table above. No rising trends are to identify. All trends in emissions correspond to trends of emission factors in table above. No rising trends are to identify.
-[[gallery size="medium" viewer="yes"]] +[{{:sector:ippu:mineral_industry:em_2a1_since_1990.png|**Emission trends in NFR 2.A.1**}}]
- EM_2A1_since_1990.PNG +
-[[/gallery]]+
  
 ===== Recalculations ===== ===== Recalculations =====
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 ===== Planned improvements ===== ===== Planned improvements =====
  
-For purposes of updating the EF project has started in 2019, but results are planned not before 2021 [((bibcite 1))]. +For purposes of updating the EF project has started in 2019, but results are planned not before 2021 [(ReFoPlan FKZ – 3719 52 1010: „Überarbeitung der Emissionsfaktoren für Luftschadstoffe in den Branchen Zementklinkerproduktion und Glasherstellung")].
- +
-[!-- **FAQ** +
-No comments! +
-...--] +
- +
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-[[bibliography]] +
-: 1 : ReFoPlan FKZ – 3719 52 1010: „Überarbeitung der Emissionsfaktoren für Luftschadstoffe in den Branchen Zementklinkerproduktion und Glasherstellung+
  
-[[/bibliography]]