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1.A.3.d - Navigation
Category 1.A.3.d - Navigation includes emissions from national and international inland and maritime navigation.
|NFR-Code||Name of Category||Method||AD||EF||Key Category Analysis|
|1.A.3.d||Navigation||see sub-category details|
|consisting of / including source categories|
|1.A.3.d i (ii)||International Inland Waterways||Germany does not report emissions from this sub-category.|
|1.A.3.d ii||National Navigation (Shipping)||see sub-category details|
|1.A.3.d i (i)||International Maritime Navigation||see sub-category details|
Primary fuel deliveries data for the entire navigation sector (maritime and inland waterways) is included in lines 6 ('International Maritime Bunkers') and 64 ('Coastal and Inland Navigation') of the National Energy Balance (NEB) (AGEB, 2022) 1). (For comparison, official mineral-oil data of the Federal Office of Economics and Export Control (BAFA, 2022) 2) are applied, too.)
Data on the consumption of biodiesel is provided in NEB line 64 from 2004 onward. However, as this data appears to be rather inconsistent, the consumption of biofuels is calculated within TREMOD via the official annual blending rates.
Table 1: Primary fuel deliveries as listed in the National Energy Balance, in terajoules
|NEB line 6 - Maritime Bunkers ('Hochseebunkerungen')|
|Diesel / Light heating oil||23,336||20,426||21,542||18,636||22,483||21,046||18,617||18,333||20,898||43,376||42,606||36,872||31,406||30,214||22,789||30,312|
|Heavy fuel oil||80,230||64,382||69,578||85,370||93,063||92,649||87,595||77,754||73,729||57,900||74,844||58,788||39,570||26,959||32,621||28,423|
|NEB line 64 - Coastal and Inland Navigation ('Küsten- und Binnenschifffahrt')|
source: National Energy Balances 3)
As the statistical allocation of fuels delivered to the navigation (shipping) sector follows tax aspects, NEB line 6 ('International Maritime Bunkers') includes all fuel deliveries to IMO-registered ship involved in both national and international maritime activities. On the other hand, NEB line 64 ('Coastal and Inland Navigation') includes all fuel deliveries to ship involved in inland and non-IMO maritime navigation.
Table 2: Allocation of for subsector-specfic fuel deliveries data in the NEB
|NEB line||including fuel deliveries to navigation sub-sectors…|
|6 - 'International Maritime Bunkers'||…international maritime navigation / national maritime navigation (IMO) / national fishing (IMO) / military navigation (IMO)|
|64 - 'Coastal and Inland Navigation'||…national inland navigation / national maritime navigation (non-IMO) / national fishing (non-IMO) / military navigation (non-IMO)|
Therefore, the amounts of fuels listed in NEB lines 6 and 64 are broken down on several sub-sectors.
Regarding all national maritime activities, taking place in National Maritime Navigation, national fishing, and military navigation, a country-specific approach allows for estimating tier3 fuel consumption data based on ship movement information (AIS signal) for IMO- and non-IMO ships.
In contrast to this bottom-up approach, fuel consumption in both international maritime navigation and national inland navigation are calculated as tier1 estimates. The following equations and charts try to illustrate the way of deducing these tier1 activity data:
Estimating the tier1 activity data for International maritime navigation:
AD1.A.3.d i = PADNEB line 6 - AD1.A.3.d ii (a) - IMO - AD1.A.4.c iii - IMO - AD1.A.5.b iii - IMO
* AD1.A.3.d i - tier1 activity data for International maritime navigation
* PADNEB line 6 - primary over-all fuel deliveries data from NEB line 6 - 'International Maritime Bunkers'
* AD1.A.3.d ii (a) - IMO - tier3 activity data for IMO-registered ships involved in national maritime navigation
* AD1.A.4.c iii - IMO - tier3 activity data for IMO-registered ships involved in national fishing
* AD1.A.5.b iii - IMO - tier3 activity data for IMO-registered ships involved in military navigation
Estimating the tier1 activity data for National inland navigation:
AD1.A.3.d ii (b) = PADNEB line 64 - AD1.A.3.d ii (a) - non-IMO - AD1.A.4.c iii - non-IMO - AD1.A.5.b iii - non-IMO
* AD1.A.3.d ii (b) - tier1 activity data for National inland navigation
* PADNEB line 64 - primary over-all fuel deliveries data from NEB line 64 - 'Coastal and Inland Navigation'
* AD1.A.3.d ii (a) - non-IMO - tier3 activity data for non-IMO ships involved in national maritime navigation
* AD1.A.4.c iii -non-IMO - tier3 activity data for for non-IMO ships involved in national fishing
* AD1.A.5.b iii - non-IMO - tier3 activity data for for non-IMO ships involved in military navigation
Table 3: Resulting breakdown of primary fuel deliveries onto the different navigation sub-sectors, in terajoules
|1.A.3.d i - International maritime navigation|
|Diesel oil / Light heating oil||13,162||13,096||13,709||11,820||16,417||15,020||12,181||11,875||13,801||33,958||32,832||27,463||21,473||20,231||13,896||21,454|
|Heavy fuel oil||76,942||62,066||67,080||83,224||91,169||90,779||85,586||75,559||71,598||57,792||74,807||58,707||39,308||26,565||32,253||28,031|
|1.A.3.d ii (a) - National maritime navigation|
|Diesel oil / Light heating oil||9,484||6,828||7,367||6,399||5,690||5,669||6,089||6,133||6,766||8,980||9,335||8,960||9,445||9,497||8,339||8,475|
|Heavy fuel oil||3,103||2,186||2,382||2,054||1,810||1,790||1,932||2,134||2,057||108,0||37,0||81,1||262||394||368||392|
|1.A.3.d ii (b) - National inland navigation|
|1.A.4.c iii - Fishing|
|Diesel oil / Light heating oil||305||240||238||226||227||213||209||214||227||284||298||293||356||322||359||265|
|Heavy fuel oil||33.3||26.0||26.0||24.4||24.5||23.0||22.6||16.8||13.8||0.00||0.00||0.00||0.00||0.00||0.00||0.00|
|1.A.5.b iii - Military navigation|
|Diesel oil / Light heating oil||380||263||228||171||150||144||138||111||104||154||141||156||133||164||195||118|
|Heavy fuel oil||152||104||90.4||67.4||59.0||56.5||54.0||43.9||60.5||0||0||0||0||0||0||0|
Annual country-specific emission factors have been developed within the underlying models maintained at the ifeu Institute for Energy and Environmental Research (Knörr et al. (2022a): TREMOD) 4) and the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (Deichnik (2022): BSH model) 5).
For information on these country-specific emission factors, please refer to the sub-chapters linked above.
Impact of fuel-sulphur regulation on sulphur dioxide
Table 4: Development of fuel-sulfur limits for maritime fuels in SECAs, in [% m/m]
|mid-2006 to mid-2010||1.50|
|mid-2010 to 2015||1.00||LSFO2|
|as of 2015||0.10||ULSFO3|
These fuel-sulfur limits listed are used for the derivation of emission factors especially for heavy fuel oil used in the German inventory. Here, until 2006, a global average of 2.70 % m/m is applied.
Table 5: Development of global fuel-sulfur limits for maritime fuels, in [% m/m]
|2012 to 2020||3.50|
|as of 2020||0.50|
Heavy metals and POPs
For heavy metal and POP emissions, tier1 EF have been derived from the EMEP/EEA Guidebook 2019 mainly 8).
For information on the emission factors for heavy-metal and POP exhaust emissions, please refer to Appendix 2.3 - Heavy Metal (HM) exhaust emissions from mobile sources and Appendix 2.4 - Persistent Organic Pollutant (POP) exhaust emissions from mobile sources.
Table 4 shows the tier1 emission factors for exhaust emissions of heavy-metals and POPs as applied to all navigation sub-categories in 1.A.3.d as well as NFRs 1.A.4.c iii and 1.A.5.b iii. The listed values have been derived from default values provided in the EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook (EMEP/EEA, 2019) 9) and (Rentz et al., 2008) 10).
Here, as the guidebook does not provide source-specific values for PAHs, respective values provided for diesel in railways and heavy duty road vehicles have been applied as a gap-filling proxy.
Table 6: Tier1 emission factors for heavy-metal and POP exhaust emissions
|Diesel oil||3.03 2||0.233 2||0.698 2||0.93 2||1.16 2||20.5 2||23.3 2||2.33 2||27.9 2||698 5||1,164 5||801 6||1846||2,847 4||0.885 2||1.86 2||93.0 7|
|Heavy fuel oil||4.46 3||0.496 3||0.496 3||16.9 3||17.8 3||31.0 3||793 3||5.20 3||29.7 3||741 5||1,235 5||849 6||195 6||3,020 4||14.1 3||3.46 3||98.7 7|
2 tier1 defaults from 11), Chapter: 1.A.3.d.i, 1.A.3.d.ii, 1.A.4.c.iii Navigation: Table 3-2
3 tier1 defaults from 12), Chapter: 1.A.3.d.i, 1.A.3.d.ii, 1.A.4.c.iii Navigation: Table 3-1
4 sum of tier1 default values applied for B[a]P, B[b]F, B[k]F, and I[1,2,3-c,d]P
5 tier1 defaults from 13), Chapter: 1.A.3.c Railways: Diesel, Table 3-1
6 tier1 defaults from 14), Chapter: 1.A.3.b.i, 1.A.3.b.ii, 1.A.3.b.iii, 1.A.3.b.iv - Road transport, Table 3-8: HDV, Diesel
7 tier1 value derived from 15)