3.D - Agricultural Soils

Short description

NFR-Code Name of Category Method AD EF State of reporting
3.D Agricultural Soils
consisting of / including source categories
3.D.a.1 Inorganic N-fertilizers (includes also urea application) T2 (NH3), T1 (for NOx) NS,RS D (NH3), D (NOx)
3.D.a.2.a Animal manure applied to soils T2, T3 (NH3), T1 (for NOx) M CS (NH3), D (NOx)
3.D.a.2.b Sewage sludge applied to soils T1 (for NH3,NOx) NS, RS D (NH3), D (NOx)
3.D.a.2.c Other organic fertilisers applied to soils (including compost) T2 (for NOx, NH3) M CS
3.D.a.3 Urine and dung deposited by grazing animals T1 (for NH3, NOx) NS,RS D
3.D.c Farm-level agricultural operations including storage, handling and transport of agricultural products T1 (for TSP, PM10, PM2.5) NS, RS D
3.D.d Off-farm storage, handling and transport of bulk agricultural products NA & for Black Carbon, NR
3.D.e Cultivated crops T2 (NMVOC) NS, RS D
3.D.f Agriculture other including use of pesticides T2 (HCB) NS D
Key Category NOx NMVOC SO2 NH3 PM2.5 PM10 TSP BC CO Pb Cd Hg Diox PAH HCB
3.D.a.1 L/- - - L/T - - - - - - - - - - -
3.D.a.2.a L/- - - L/T - - - - - - - - - - -
3.D.a.2.b -/- - - -/- - - - - - - - - - - -
3.D.a.2.c -/- - - L/T - - - - - - - - - - -
3.D.a.3 -/- - - -/- - - - - - - - - - - -
3.D.c - - - - -/- L/- L/- - - - - - - - -
3.D.e - -/- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
3.D.f - - - - - - - - - - - - - - L/-

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T = key source by Trend L = key source by Level

Methods
D Default
RA Reference Approach
T1 Tier 1 / Simple Methodology *
T2 Tier 2*
T3 Tier 3 / Detailed Methodology *
C CORINAIR
CS Country Specific
M Model
* as described in the EMEP/CORINAIR Emission Inventory Guidebook - 2007, in the group specific chapters.
AD - Data Source for Activity Data
NS National Statistics
RS Regional Statistics
IS International Statistics
PS Plant Specific data
AS Associations, business organisations
Q specific questionnaires, surveys
EF - Emission Factors
D Default (EMEP Guidebook)
C Confidential
CS Country Specific
PS Plant Specific data


Country specifics

NH₃ and NOₓ

In 2020, agricultural soils emitted 260.0 kt NH3 or 50.7 % of the total agricultural NH3 emissions in Germany (512.3 kt NH3). The main contributions to the total NH3 emissions from agricultural soils are the application of manure (3.D.a.2.a), with 158.7 kt (61.0 %) and the application of inorganic N-fertilizers (3.D.a.1) with 50.1 kt (19.3 %).

Application of sewage sludge (3.D.a.2.b) contributes 0.7 % or 1.9 kt NH3.

The application of residues from the digestion of energy crops (3.D.a.2.c) leads to 37.0 kt NH3 or 14.2 %. N excretions on pastures (3.D.a.3) have a share of 12.3 kt NH3 or 4.7 %.

In 2020, agricultural soils were the source of 98.6 % (107.2 kt) of the total of NOx emissions in the agricultural category (108.7 kt). The NOx emissions from agricultural soils are primarily due to application of inorganic fertilizer (3.D.a.1) (50.1 %) and manure (3.D.a.2.a) (34.3 %). Application of residues from digested energy crops (3.D.a.2.c) contributes 10.8 % to agricultural soil emissions, 4.3 % are due to excretions on pastures (3.D.a.3). Emissions from application of sewage sludge (3.D.a.2.b) contribute 0.5 %.

NMVOC

In 2020, the category of agricultural soils contributed 9.2 kt NMVOC or 3.1 % to the total agricultural NMVOC emissions in Germany. The only emission source was cultivated crops (3.D.e).

TSP, PM₁₀ & PM₂.₅

In 2020, agricultural soils contributed, respectively, 28.7 % (17.3 kt), 57.2 % (17.3 kt) and 15.1 % (0.7 kt) to the total agricultural TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 emissions (60.3 kt, 30.2 kt, 4.4 kt, respectively). The emissions are reported in category 3.D.c (Farm-level agricultural operations including storage, handling and transport of agricultural products).

3.D.a.1 - Inorganic N-fertilizers

The calculation of NH3 and NOx (NO) emissions from the application of inorganic fertilizers is described in Vos et al. (2022), Chapter 11.1 1).

Activity Data

German statistics report the amounts of fertilizers sold which are assumed to equal the amounts that are applied. Since the 2021 submission, storage effects are approximated by applying a moving average to the sales data (moving centered three-year average, for the last year a weighted two-year average, which assigns 2/3 of the weight to the last year).

Table 1: AD for the estimation of NH3 and NOx emissions from application of inorganic fertilizers

Application of inorganic fertilizers in Gg N
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Application of fertilizers (total) 2'196 1'723 1'922 1'797 1'635 1'665 1'692 1'655 1'716 1'736 1'731 1'622 1'499 1'404 1'362
Calcium ammonium nitrate 1'368 1'044 982 824 689 708 680 644 633 618 605 571 543 520 508
Nitrogen solutions (urea AN) 127 223 261 236 180 187 181 173 173 172 171 162 151 137 132
Urea 243 180 247 290 362 323 348 342 391 417 433 377 310 248 225
Ammonium phosphates 85 55 66 55 64 71 77 78 82 84 82 77 65 64 63
Other NK and NPK 246 162 175 126 63 66 73 71 72 67 62 54 52 51 52
Other straight fertilizers 127 60 191 266 277 311 331 348 365 377 377 381 378 383 383

Methodology

NH3 emissions from the application of inorganic fertilizers are calculated using the Tier 2 approach according to EMEP (2019)-3D-14ff 2), distinguishing between various fertilizer types, see Table 2. For NOx, the Tier 1 approach described in EMEP (2019) [10]-3D-11 is applied.

Emission factors

The emission factors for NH3 depend on fertilizer type, see EMEP (2019)-3D-15. Table 2 lists the EMEP emission factors for the fertilizers used in the inventory. In order to reflect average German conditions the emission factors for cool climate and a pH value lower than 7 was chosen. For urea fertilizer the German fertilizer ordinance prescribes the use of urease inhibitors or the immediate incorporation into the soil from 2020 onwards. The NH3 emission factor for urea fertilizers is therefore reduced by 70% from 2020 onwards, according to Bittman et al. (2014, Table 15)3).

Table 2: NH3-EF for inorganic fertilizers

Inorganic fertilizers, emission factors in kg NH3 per kg fertilizer N
Fertilizer type EF
Calcium ammonium nitrate 0.008
Nitrogen solutions (UREA AN) 0.098
Urea 0.155 (in 2020: 0.0465)
Ammonium phosphates 0.050
Other NK and NPK 0.050
Other straight fertilizers 0.010

For NOx, the simpler methodology by EMEP (2019)-3D-11 was used. The emission factor 0.040 from EMEP, 2019-3D, Table 3.1 has the units of kg N2O per kg fertilizer N and was derived from Stehfest and Bouwman (2006)4). The German inventory uses the emission factor 0.012 kg NO-N per kg N derived from Stehfest and Bouwman (2006). This is equivalent to an emission factor of 0.03943 kg NOx per kg fertilizer N (obtained by multiplying 0.012 kg NO-N per kg N with the molar weight ratio 46/14 for NO2: NO). The inventory uses the unrounded emission factor.

Table 3: Emission factor for NOx emissions from fertilizer application

Emission factor kg NO-N  per kg fertilizer N kg NOx per kg fertilizer N
EFfert 0.012 0.039

Trend discussion for Key Sources

In the last years (and up to 2019 in dramatic fashion) fertilizer sales have decreased. Emissions have fallen accordingly. This is even more pronounced for NH3 than for NOx, as total NH3 from the application of mineral fertilizers is, until the year 2019, very strongly correlated with the amount of urea applied (R2 = 0.89), the sales of which have decreased more than for all other mineral fertilizers. Since 2020 the negative trend is reinforced as urea fertilizer have to be either used with urease inhibitors or have to be incorporated into the soil directly, which causes 70% lower emissions (Bittman et al. 2014).

Recalculations

Table REC-1 shows the effects of recalculations on NH3 and NOx emissions. The only differences are in 2019 as the year 2020 is now included in the weighted average.

Table REC-1: Comparison of NH3 and NOx emissions from fertilizer application of the submissions (SUB) 2021 and 2022

NH3 and NOx emissions from fertilizer application, in Gg
SUB 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
NH3 2022 78.82 69.56 85.64 86.36 88.43 83.96 88.04 85.95 93.92 97.89 99.73 89.25 76.79 65.63 36.97
NH3 2021 78.82 69.56 85.64 86.36 88.43 83.96 88.04 85.95 93.92 97.89 99.73 89.25 76.79 68.09
NOx 2022 86.57 67.94 75.77 70.84 64.48 65.66 66.71 65.25 67.65 68.46 68.24 63.95 59.11 55.34 53.71
NOx 2021 86.57 67.94 75.77 70.84 64.48 65.66 66.71 65.25 67.65 68.46 68.24 63.95 59.11 55.97

Planned improvements

No improvements are planned at present.

3.D.a.2.a - Animal manure applied to soils

In this sub category Germany reports the NH3 and NOx (NO) emissions from application of manure (including application of anaerobically digested manure). For an overview see Vos et al. (2022), Chapter 11.2.

Activity data

The calculation of the amount of N in manure applied is based on the N mass flow approach (see 3.B). It is the total of N excreted by animals in the housing and the N imported with bedding material minus N losses by emissions of N species from housing and storage. Hence, the amount of total N includes the N contained in anaerobically digested manures to be applied to the field.

The frequencies of application techniques and incorporation times as well as the underlying data sources are described in Vos et al. (2022), Chapter 3.4.3. The frequencies are provided e. g. in the NIR 20225), Chapter 19.3.2.

Table 4: AD for the estimation of NH3 and NOx emissions from application of manure

Application of manure in Gg N
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
1'120 972 954 924 928 933 949 961 972 972 966 961 947 940 932

Methodology

NH3 emissions from manure application are calculated separately for each animal species in the mass flow approach by multiplying the respective TAN amount with NH3 emission factors for the various manure application techniques. For details see [3-b-manure-management 3.B] and Vos et al. (2022), Chapter 4 to 8 and 11.3. For NOx emissions from manure application the inventory calculates NO-N emissions (see Vos et al. (2022), Chapter 11.2, that are subsequently converted into NOx emissions by multiplying with the molar weight ratio 46/14. The Tier 1 approach for the application of inorganic fertilizer as described in EMEP (2019)-3D-11 is used, as no specific methodology is available for manure application.

Emission factors

Table 5 shows the time series of the overall German NH3 IEF defined as the ratio of total NH3-N emission from manure application to the total amount of N spread with manure.

Table 5: IEF for NH3–N from application of manure

IEF in kg NH3-N per kg N in applied manure
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
0.202 0.187 0.180 0.168 0.162 0.162 0.157 0.155 0.152 0.150 0.148 0.147 0.145 0.143 0.140

For NOx the same emission factor as for the application of inorganic fertilizer was used (see Table 3).

Trend discussion for Key Sources

Both NH3 and NOx emissions from the application of animal manures are key sources. Total NOx is calculated proportionally to the total N in the manures applied which decreased remarkably from 1990 to 1991 due to the decline in animal numbers following the German reunification (reduction of livestock numbers in Eastern Germany). In the 1990s and 2000s this was followed by a weakened decline in animal manure amounts. From 2010 to 2014 there was a slight increase and since then the amount of N in manure applied has been slightly declining again, see Table 4. The NOx emissions follow these trends. For total NH3 emissions there is a slight negative trend. This is due to the increasing use of application practices with lower NH3 emission factors.

Recalculations

Table REC-2 shows the effects of recalculations on NH3 and NOx.The total emissions of NH3 and NOx from application of manure are slightly lower than those of last year’s submission from the year 2000 onwards for NH3, from the year 2010 onwards for NOx. In earlier years the emissions are slightly higher than in last year’s submission.

These differences are predominantly caused by the update of data from the official agricultural census 2020 as well as the update of the suckler-cow model and the new raw protein contents in feed of fattening pigs and broilers, see main page of the agricultural sector, list of recalculation reasons, No. 1, 4, 7 and 8.

Much smaller is the impact of the updates of activity data for male cattle > 2 years, pigs, poultry and sheep (see recalculation reasons 5, 6 and 9 through 12) Further details on recalculations are described in Vos et al. (2022), Chapter 3.5.2.

Table REC-2: Comparison of the NH3 and NOx emissions of the submissions (SUB) 2021 and 2022

NH3 and NOx emissions from application of manure, in Gg
SUB 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
NH3 2022 275.21 221.15 208.05 188.31 182.09 183.07 180.74 181.30 179.97 177.25 174.11 171.06 166.32 162.64 158.67
NH3 2021 273.67 220.82 208.69 190.07 185.28 186.32 184.07 184.62 183.26 180.08 179.11 178.15 175.65 174.11
NOx 2022 44.14 38.33 37.61 36.42 36.58 36.81 37.43 37.88 38.34 38.31 38.07 37.91 37.35 37.05 36.76
NOx 2021 43.46 37.99 37.41 36.35 36.71 36.99 37.67 38.18 38.70 38.58 38.39 38.27 37.80 37.54

Planned improvements

No improvements are planned at present.

3.D.a.2.b – Sewage sludge applied to soils

The calculation of NH3 and NOx (NO) emissions from application of sewage sludge is described in Vos et al. (2022), Chapter 11.4.

Activity data

N quantities from application of sewage sludge were calculated from data of the German Environment Agency and (since 2009) from data of the Federal Statistical Office (see Table 6).

Table 6: AD for the estimation of NH3 and NOx emissions from application of sewage sludge

Application of sewage sludge in Gg N
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
27 35 33 27 26 25 25 22 21 19 19 14 12 14 14

Methodology

A tier 1 methodology is used (EMEP, 2019, 3D, Chapter 3.3.1). NH3 and NOx emissions are calculated by multiplying the amounts of N in sewage sludge applied with the respective emission factors.

Emission factors

EMEP (2019)-3.D, Table 3-1 provides a Tier 1 emission factor for NH3 (0.13 kg NH3 per kg N applied) emissions from application of sewage sludge. The German inventory uses the equivalent emission factor in NH3-N units which is 0.11 kg NH3-N per kg N applied (cf. the derivation of the emission factor described in the appendix of EMEP (2019)-3D, page 26-27). For NOx the same emission factor like for the application of inorganic fertilizer was used (see Table 3).

Trend discussion for Key Sources

NH3 and NOx emissions from the application of sewage sludge are no key sources.

Recalculations

Table REC-3 shows the effects of recalculations on NH3 and NOx emissions. The only change compared to last year’s submission occurs for the year 2018 and 2019 due to the update of the activity data (see main page of the agricultural sector, recalculation No 15. Further details on recalculations are described in Vos et al. (2022), Chapter 3.5.2.

Table REC-3: Comparison of the NH3 and NOx emissions of the submissions (SUB) 2021 and 2022

NH3 and NOx emissions from application of sewage sludge, in Gg
SUB 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
NH3 2022 3.66 4.71 4.40 3.66 3.48 3.35 3.33 2.87 2.85 2.50 2.50 1.89 1.67 1.90 1.90
NH3 2021 3.66 4.71 4.40 3.66 3.48 3.35 3.33 2.87 2.85 2.50 2.50 1.89 1.73 1.73
NOx 2022 1.08 1.39 1.30 1.08 1.03 0.99 0.98 0.85 0.84 0.74 0.74 0.56 0.49 0.56 0.56
NOx 2021 1.08 1.39 1.30 1.08 1.03 0.99 0.98 0.85 0.84 0.74 0.74 0.56 0.51 0.51

Planned improvements

No improvements are planned at present.

3.D.a.2.c - Other organic fertilizers applied to soils

This sub category describes Germany’s NH3 and NOx (NO) emissions from application of residues from digested energy crops. For details see Vos et al. (2022), Chapters 10.2 and 11.3.

Activity data

Activity data is the amount of N in residues from anaerobic digestion of energy crops when leaving storage. This amount of N is the N contained in the energy crops when being fed into the digestion process minus the N losses by emissions of N species from the storage of the residues (see 3.I). N losses from pre-storage are negligible and there are no N losses from fermenter (see Vos et al. (2022), Chapter 10.2.1).

Table 7: AD for the estimation of NH3 and NOx emissions from application of residues from anaerobic digestion of energy crops

Application of residues from digested energy plants in Gg N
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
0.05 0.62 5.40 45.76 167.41 209.32 230.52 279.13 292.42 303.81 302.16 297.19 292.86 293.08 293.08

Methodology

The NH3 emissions are calculated the same way as the NH3 emissions from application of animal manure (3.D.a.2.a). The frequencies of application techniques and incorporation times as well as the underlying data sources are provided e. g. in the NIR 2022, Chapter 19.3.2. The amounts of TAN in the residues applied are obtained from the calculations of emissions from the storage of the digested energy crops (3.I).

For NOx emissions from application of residues the Tier 1 approach for the application of inorganic fertilizer as described in EMEP (2019)-3D-11 is used. The inventory calculates NO emissions that are subsequently converted into NOx emissions by multiplying with the molar weight ratio 46/30.

Emission factors

For NH3 the emission factors for untreated cattle slurry were adopted, see Vos et al. (2022), Chapter 10.2. As the NOx method for fertilizer application is used for the calculation of NOx emissions from the application of residues, the emission factor for fertilizer application was used (see Vos et al. (2022), Chapter 11.1)

Table 8 shows the implied emission factors for NH3 emissions from application of residues from digested energy crops.

Table 8: IEF for NH3-N

IEF in kg NH3-N per kg N in digested energy crops
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
0.182 0.182 0.183 0.183 0.183 0.184 0.174 0.166 0.159 0.153 0.150 0.148 0.146 0.143 0.141

Trend discussion for Key Sources

The application of residues from anaerobic digestion of energy crops is a key source for NH3. Emissions are dominated by the amounts of N in the substrates fed into the digestion process and to a lesser extent by the increased use of application techniques with lower emission factors. They have become important since about 2005 and have risen sharply until 2013. Since then, they have changed little each year and tend to decrease slightly in the last few years. The latter is mostly due to a small negative trend of the amounts of energy crops digested.

Recalculations

Table REC-4 shows the effects of recalculations on NH3 and NOx emissions. The only changes compared to last year’s submission occur for the years 2015-2019, due to the use of new data on manure spreading techniques from the official agricultural census 2020 (see main page of the agricultural sector, list of recalculation reasons, No 1 and 16, and Vos et al. (2022), Chapter 3.5.2.)

Table REC-4: Comparison of the NH3 and NOx emissions of the submissions (SUB) 2021 and 2022

NH3 and NOx emissions from application of digested energy crops, in Gg
SUB 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
NH3 2022 0.01 0.14 1.20 10.15 37.27 46.75 48.81 56.27 56.56 56.42 55.16 53.47 51.82 50.98 50.12
NH3 2021 0.01 0.14 1.20 10.15 37.27 46.75 48.81 56.27 56.56 56.42 56.11 55.37 54.63 54.63
NOx 2022 0.00 0.02 0.21 1.80 6.60 8.25 9.09 11.01 11.53 11.98 11.91 11.72 11.55 11.56 11.56
NOx 2021 0.00 0.02 0.21 1.80 6.60 8.25 9.09 11.01 11.53 11.98 11.91 11.72 11.55 11.55

Planned improvements

No improvements are planned at present.

3.D.a.3 - Urine and dung deposited by grazing animals

The calculation of NH3 and NOx (NO) emissions from N excretions on pasture is described in Vos et al. (2022), Chapter 11.5.

Activity data

Activity data for NH3 emissions during grazing is the amount of TAN excreted on pasture while for NOx emissions it is the amount of N excreted on pasture.

Table 9 shows the N excretions on pasture. The TAN excretions are derived by multiplying the N excretions with the relative TAN contents provided in 3.B, Table 2.

Table 9: N excretions on pasture

N excretions on pasture in % of total N excreted
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Dairy cows 20.3 15.6 12.7 11.3 10.3 10.1 9.8 9.5 9.2 8.9 8.6 8.3 8.0 7.7 7.4
Other cattle 15.1 17.3 18.9 19.0 19.4 19.5 19.6 19.7 19.9 20.3 20.5 20.7 20.9 21.2 21.5
Sheep 55.1 55.5 55.1 55.4 54.8 55.1 55.1 55.2 55.3 55.4 55.4 55.4 55.6 55.5 55.4
Goats 34.2 34.2 34.2 34.2 34.2 34.2 34.2 34.2 34.2 34.2 34.2 34.2 34.2 34.2 34.2
Horses 20.5 20.5 20.5 20.5 20.5 20.5 20.5 20.5 20.5 20.5 20.5 20.5 20.5 20.5 20.5

Methodology

NH3 emissions from grazing are calculated by multiplying the respective animal population (3.B, Table 1) with corresponding N excretions and relative TAN contents (3.B, Table 2) and the fraction of N excreted on pasture (Table 9). The result is multiplied with the animal specific emission factor (Table 10). NO emissions are calculated the same way with the exception that the emission factor is related to N excreted instead of TAN.

Emission Factors

The emission factors for NH3 are taken from EMEP (2019)-3B-31, Table 3.9. They relate to the amount of TAN excreted on pasture. Following the intention of EMEP, 2019-3D, Table 3.1, the inventory uses for NOx the same emission factor as for the application of inorganic fertilizer (see Table 3). In order to obtain NOx emissions (as NO2) the NO-N emission factor of 0.12 kg NO-N per kg N excreted is multiplied by 46/14.

Table 10: Emission factors for emissions of NH3 and NO from grazing

Emission factors
Dairy cows 0.14 kg NH3-N per kg TAN excreted
Other cattle 0.14 kg NH3-N per kg TAN excreted
Horses 0.35 kg NH3-N per kg TAN excreted
Sheep, goats 0.09 kg NH3-N per kg TAN excreted
All animals 0.012 kg NO-N per kg N excreted

Trend discussion for Key Sources

Emissions from urine and dung deposited by grazing animals are no key sources.

Recalculations

Table REC-5 shows the effects of recalculations on NH3 and NOx emissions.

Because overall N excretions on pasture are lower than in last year’s submission for dairy cattle, but higher for other cattle (predominantly due to new cattle grazing data from the official agricultural census 2020 and the update of the suckler-cow models, see main page of the agricultural sector, list of recalculation reasons, No 1 and 2), NOx emissions are lower than in last year’s submission. However, although NH3 emissions could be expected to show the same pattern, they are slightly higher than in the last submission in 1990-2013 and slightly lower than in last year’s submission from 2014 onwards. This is due to a combination of two effects: The TAN content of the suckler cows’ N-excretions is higher in the new suckler-cow model, which leads to higher emissions over the whole time series. This is over-compensated by declining dairy cow grazing times from 2014 onwards, which leads to lower emissions (see list of recalculation reasons, No 1 and 2). Further details on recalculations are described in Vos et al. (2022), Chapter 3.5.2.

Table REC-5: Comparison of the NH3 and NOx emissions of the submissions (SUB) 2021 and 2022

NH3 and NOx emissions from grazing, in Gg
SUB 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
NH3 2022 22.23 18.15 16.26 14.35 13.80 13.43 13.29 13.37 13.40 13.40 13.20 13.03 12.74 12.56 12.30
NH3 2021 22.16 18.04 16.10 14.21 13.61 13.30 13.22 13.35 13.43 13.51 13.34 13.20 12.93 12.78
NOx 2022 8.40 6.82 6.14 5.45 5.23 5.08 5.02 5.04 5.06 5.05 4.97 4.90 4.79 4.73 4.62
NOx 2021 8.44 6.89 6.22 5.53 5.30 5.17 5.15 5.20 5.25 5.29 5.24 5.20 5.13 5.10

Planned improvements

No improvements are planned at present.

3.D.c - Farm-level agricultural operations including storage, handling and transport of agricultural products

In this category Germany reports TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 emissions from crop production according to EMEP (2019)-3D-11. For details see Vos et al. (2022), Chapter 11.14.

Activity data

The activity data is the total area of arable and horticultural land. This data is provided by official statistics.

Table 11: AD for the estimation of TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 emissions from soils

Arable and horticultural land in 1000*ha
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
11'179 10'257 10'683 10'902 11'411 11'431 11'421 11'478 11'475 11'346 11'281 11'273 11'181 11'163 11'071

Methodology

As the Tier 2 methodology described in EMEP (2019)-3D-17 cannot be used due to lack of input data, the Tier 1 methodology described in EMEP(2019)-3D-11 is used.

Emission factors

Emission factors given in EMEP (2019)-3D-12 are used. The Guidebook does not indicate whether EFs have considered the condensable component (with or without).

Table 12: Emission factors for PM emissions from agricultural soils

Emission factor kg ha-1
EFTSP 1.56
EFPM10 1.56
EFPM2.5 0.06

Trend discussion for Key Sources

TSP and PM10 are key sources. Emissions depend only on the areas covered. These are relatively constant, with a very slight decrease over the past 10 years.

Recalculations

Table REC-6 shows the effects of recalculations on particulate matter emissions. There are minor changes with respect to last year’s submission in several years because of updates of cultivation areas (see main page of the agricultural sector, list of recalculation reasons, No 17). However, due to the data format in Table REC-6, these differences are not visible. Further details on recalculations are described in Vos et al. (2022), Chapter 3.5.2.

Table REC-6: Comparison of particle emissions (TSP, PM10 & PM2.5) of the submissions (SUB) 2021 and 2022

TSP, PM10, PM2.5 emissions from crop production, in Gg
SUB 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
TSP 2022 17.44 16.00 16.67 17.01 17.80 17.83 17.82 17.91 17.90 17.70 17.60 17.59 17.44 17.41 17.27
TSP 2021 17.44 16.00 16.67 17.01 17.80 17.83 17.82 17.91 17.90 17.70 17.60 17.59 17.44 17.41
PM10 2022 17.44 16.00 16.67 17.01 17.80 17.83 17.82 17.91 17.90 17.70 17.60 17.59 17.44 17.41 17.27
PM10 2021 17.44 16.00 16.67 17.01 17.80 17.83 17.82 17.91 17.90 17.70 17.60 17.59 17.44 17.41
PM2.5 2022 0.67 0.62 0.64 0.65 0.68 0.69 0.69 0.69 0.69 0.68 0.68 0.68 0.67 0.67 0.66
PM2.5 2021 0.67 0.62 0.64 0.65 0.68 0.69 0.69 0.69 0.69 0.68 0.68 0.68 0.67 0.67

Planned improvements

No improvements are planned at present.

3.D.e - Cultivated crops

In this category Germany reports NMVOC emissions from crop production according to EMEP (2019)-3D-16. For details see Vos et al. (2022), Chapter 11.12.

Activity data

The activity data is the total area of arable land and grassland. This data is provided by official statistics.

Table 13: AD for the estimation of NMVOC emissions from crop production

Arable land and grassland in 1000*ha
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
16'506 15'312 15'498 15'561 15'734 15'752 15'729 15'769 15'802 15'719 15'662 15'647 15'570 15'563 15'447

Methodology

The Tier 2 methodology described in EMEP (2019)-3D-16ff is used.

Emission Factors

The emission factors for wheat, rye, rape and grass (15°C) given in EMEP (2019)-3D-16, Table 3.3 were used. For all grassland areas the grass (15°C) EF is used, for all other crops except rye and rape the EF of wheat is used. Table 14 shows the implied emission factors for NMVOC emissions from crop production. The implied emission factor is defined as ratio of the total NMVOC emissions from cultivated crops to the total area given by activity data.

Table 14: IEF for NMVOC emissions from crop production

IEF for NMVOC emissions from crop production in kg ha-1
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
0.47 0.53 0.57 0.59 0.61 0.57 0.64 0.66 0.72 0.63 0.62 0.62 0.50 0.55 0.59

Trend discussion for Key Sources

NMVOC emissions from crop production are no key sources.

Recalculations

Table REC-7 shows the effects of recalculations on NMVOC emissions. There are minor changes with respect to last year’s submission in seral years because of updates of yields (see main page of the agricultural sector, list of recalculation reasons, No 17). However, due to the data format in Table Table REC-6, these differences are not visible. Further details on recalculations are described in Vos et al. (2022), Chapter 3.5.2.

Table REC-7: Comparison of NMVOC emissions of the submissions (SUB) 2021 and 2022

NMVOC emissions from crop production, in Gg
SUB 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
2022 7.69 8.19 8.79 9.17 9.53 9.03 10.05 10.36 11.40 9.91 9.69 9.74 7.82 8.56 9.16
2021 7.69 8.19 8.79 9.17 9.53 9.03 10.05 10.36 11.40 9.91 9.69 9.74 7.82 8.56

For pollutant-specific information on recalculated emission estimates for Base Year and 2019, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.

Planned improvements

No improvements are planned at present.

Uncertainty

Details are described in chapter 1.7.

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