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2.A.5.a - Quarrying & Mining - Other Than Coal
For particulate emissions, Mining is the main emissions source in the Mineral industries.
In Germany we use two approaches - one for Sands and rocks, one for salts.
Short description - Sands and Rocks
The mining process emits relevant amounts of particles. Quarrying and mining of minerals other than coal is subsumed, in particular mining of limestone, hard rock and building Sands, with rising recycled materials.
With the use of the 2019 GB method 1), a Tier 2 method is available that can reflect different national conditions.
In particular, this concerns input variables on humidity and wind speed, which are differentiated into regions. Due to data availability, the regions are represented by the administrative states (German Länder), which does not necessarily represent characteristic weather regimes. Regionality can be increased by merging urban and surface states. Parameters on weather as well as on areas can thus be improved.
The temporal resolution of the regional parameters has limitations: no weather data reports are available on a station basis before 2010, so no area information from the Corine land cover before 2010 is used (consistent data sets). In addition, information from CLC category 131 (Mineral extraction sites 2)) had to be adjusted for areas of active open-pit lignite mines.
As provided for in the GB model, we use AD in the split hard rock, sand and recycled material. These AD are taken from association information because the national statistics are not complete 3). Data gaps are interpolated for time series concsistency. The application of the method therefore resulted in higher AD.
The calculation of emissions takes into account national circumstances and reduction measures.The calculations are available in total more than ten Excel files (individual years since 1990, annually from 2010). Since the GB tool in principle calculates emissions for exactly one year 4), files must be available for exactly those years in which input data are available. Intermediate years are interpolated in case of data gaps.
With the help of the GB tools, IEFs are estimated on an annual basis, which are used for the inventory method AR x EF. The emission factors are virtual, but the calculation of this is modified by national circumstances on the parameters. So we would name the EF as country-specific.
Recalculations were necessary due to revised emissions model parameters for the whole time. Because of the particular weather sensitivity of the model, there are years with higher emissions, which is not counterbalanced by reductions from the area correction. There are changes for the years 1990 to 2009 because of the corrected area data, without specific modeling. The changed weather data can be found in the data set for the adjustment of all years starting in 2010.
At the moment, it is planned evaluate further Country specific conditions.
Short description - Salt Production
Salt production is a sub-category of the mining activities in respect of the country specific approach used. Currently, a Tier 1 method is used: information on production of salts are multiplied with emission factors for TSP and PM.
The data from national statistics includes production of potash and rock salt. Potash salt is dominating, nevertheless gaps of statistics are filled and emissions are modelled as potash salt only.
The emission factors are based on analogy to bulk product handling by an expert judgements from UBA:
Table 2: Overview of applied emission factors, in kg/t salt
|Pollutant||EF value||EF trend|
For pollutant-specific information on recalculated emission estimates for Base Year and 2019, please see the pollutant specific recalculation tables following chapter 8.1 - Recalculations.
At the moment, no category-specific improvements are planned.